Opportunities and challenges for integrating dairy cattle into farms with certified organic pineapple production as perceived by smallholder farmers in Central Uganda
A study was conducted in 2013 to assess opportunities and challenges of integrating dairy cattle into organic pineapple production in Uganda. Thirty organic pineapple farmers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The main dairy cattle management systems were tethering (73%) and zero grazing (27%). Average landholding was 1.74 ± 1.06 and 3.75 ± 2.70 ha for zero grazing and tethering systems, respectively. All farms were diversified with various livestock such as cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens and crops including pineapples, maize, coffee, bananas, beans, sweet potatoes, and cassava. The level of integration of dairy cattle into pineapple production depended on the distance of crop fields from the livestock enterprises. More farms (83%) with pineapple fields closer (< 0.5 km) to the homesteads were able to use cattle manure as fertilizer compared to homesteads (50%) with more distant fields (> 0.5 km). The distance to the homestead did not influence 30% of the farmers who used crop residues for feeding dairy cattle. Farmers perceived cattle diseases and feed scarcity to be the major challenges in dairy farming. The sources of risk on the farms were perceived to be erratic rainfall, limited knowledge, and market for organic products. Majority of farmers (77%) expressed willingness to convert to organic dairy production. Availability of markets for organic dairy products (36%) and reduction of external input use (26%) were the main reasons for farmers’ willingness to convert. Integrating dairy cattle with pineapple production is an opportunity for closed nutrient cycles and income diversification. However, knowledge, access to inputs, and organized markets are needed as incentive for conversion to organic dairy production.
KeywordsCertified Conversion Crop-livestock integration Organic Perception Smallholder farms
The study received support from the Danish Agency for International Development (DANIDA) for sponsoring the research through the Productivity and Growth in Organic Value Chains (ProGrOV) project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Statement of animal rights
The manuscript does not contain clinical data studies or patient.
Conflict of interest
The authors confirm that they have no conflict of interest.
- Anecho S (2015) Understanding organic consumer characteristics in the metropolis of Kampala, Uganda. Msc Dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
- Bandura A (1977) Social learning theory. General Learning Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Chongtham IR, Neegaard AD, Pilot D (2010) Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit dying in Uganda. J Agric Rural Dev Trop Subtrop 111:23–34Google Scholar
- EAOPS (2007) East Africa Organic Product Standards. EAS 456:2007 http://www.oecd.org/aidfortrade/47719232.pdf. Accessed 4 Dec 2015
- FIT (2007) Study for fruits sub-sector (pineapples, passion fruits, mangoes), final report by FIT Uganda. http://www.fituganda.com/manage/download/atm/marketreports/subsectorstudyfruits.pdf. Accessed 4 Oct 2016
- ICROFS (2010) International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems how organic agriculture contributes to economic development in Africa: market driven development of organic high value chains. ICROFS facts sheet Number 4 (2010). http://icrofs.dk/fileadmin/icrofs/Nyheder_PDf/Faktaark_nr_4.pdf. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
- IFAD (2005) International Federation of Agricultural Development. Integrated crop-livestock farming systems. Livestock thematic papers. http://ifad.org/lrkm/index.htm. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
- Karki L, Schleenbecker R, Hamm U (2012) Factors influencing a conversion to organic farming in Nepalese tea farms. J Agric Rural Dev Trop Subtrop 112:113–123Google Scholar
- Kavoi J, Mwangi J, Kamau G (2013) Strategies for effective multi stakeholder linkages for innovative agricultural development in semiarid areas of eastern Kenya. US-China J Public Adm 10:497–506Google Scholar
- Kiggundu M (2015) Potential of ensiling organic pineapple by-products as dairy cattle feed on organic certified farms. Msc. Thesis, Makerere University, Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
- Kiggundu M, Kabi F, Vaarst M, Nalubwama S, Odhong C (2014) Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda. J Agric Environ Int Dev 108:207–225Google Scholar
- Kummer S, Aigelsperger L, Milestad R, Chowdhury AH, Vogl CR (2010) Knowledge system, innovations and social learning in organic farming—an overview. 9th European IFSA Symposium, 4–7 July 2010, Vienna (Austria)Google Scholar
- Lubungu M, Chapoto A, Tembo G (2012) Smallholder farmers participation in livestock markets: the case of Zambian farmers. 66, Indaba Agricultural Policy Research Institute (IAPRI) Middleway, Kabulonga, Lusaka, ZambiaGoogle Scholar
- Lukas M, Cahn M (2008) Organic agriculture and rural livelihoods in Karnataka, India. Paper presented at the IFOAM Organic World Congress, Modena, ItalyGoogle Scholar
- Martine-Garcia CG, Ugoretz SJ, Arriaga-Jordan CM, Wattiaux MA (2015) Farm, household and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders. Trop Anim Health Prod 47:311–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0720-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nalubwama S, Vaarst M, Kabi F, Kiggundu M, Bagamba F, Odhong C, Mugisha A, Halberg N (2014) Challenges and prospects of integrating livestock into smallholder organic pineapple production in Uganda. Livest Res Rural Dev 26Google Scholar
- Sipiläinen T and Oude Lansink A (2005) Learning in organic farming—an application on Finnish dairy farms. European Association for Agricultural Economist Congress. Copenhagen, Denmark, August 24–27Google Scholar
- Umoh GS (2006) Resource use efficiency in urban farming: an application of stochastic frontier production function. Int J Agric Biol 8:38–44Google Scholar
- Vaarst M, Roderick S, Byarugaba DK, Kobayashi S, Rubaire-Akiiki C, Karreman HJ (2006) Sustainable veterinary medical practices in organic farming: a global perspective. In: Halberg N, Alrøe HF, Knudsen MT, Kristensen ES (eds) Global development of organic agriculture, challenges and prospects. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 241–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Willer H, Lernoud J (2015) The world of organic agriculture—statistics and emerging trends 2015. FiBL–IFOAM Report. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, and IFOAM–Organics International, Bonn, p. 306Google Scholar