Advertisement

Organic Agriculture

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 83–93 | Cite as

Effects of farmyard manure and activated effective microorganisms on rain-fed upland rice in Mwanza, Tanzania

  • Paul Sabas Saidia
  • J. P. Mrema
Article
  • 255 Downloads

Abstract

The study was conducted to analyse and compare nutrient contents of farmyard manure, farmyard manure treated with effective microorganisms and effective microorganism solutions, also, to determine the effect of farmyard manure and activated effective microorganisms on rice growth, development and yield. Farmyard manure and effective microorganism solutions were characterized for nutrient status in the laboratory. A 3 × 3 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design and replicated thrice involved farmyard manure and activated effective microorganisms. Farmyard manure at rates 0, 5 and 10 t ha−1 was applied 2 weeks before sowing by broadcasting and incorporated into the soil. Activated effective microorganism solution at 0, 20 and 40 l ha−1 was sprayed weekly at vegetative stage. Farmyard manure and effective microorganism solution contained both macro- and micronutrients at varying proportions. Application of farmyard manure increased rice yields from 1.35 to 3.31 t ha−1, 1.35 to 3.03 t ha−1 activated effective microorganism solution, and 1.35 to 3.33 t ha−1 in both farmyard manure and activated effective microorganisms when integrated. Adoption of organic soil amendments would improve soil fertility for sustainable crop production to small-scale farmers.

Keywords

Effective microorganisms Farmyard manure Organic manure Rice ecosystems Upland rice 

Abbreviations

EM

Effective microorganism solution

FYM

Farmyard manure

NERICA

New Rice for Africa

Notes

Acknowledgments

I give my heartfelt thanks to the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, the Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) for sponsoring this programme, sincere acknowledgments to the Zonal Director and all staff at the Agriculture Research and Development Institute Ukiriguru Mwanza for their support during the field experiment.

Also, I would like to thank Bustani ya Tushikamane and Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania (SAT) in Morogoro and Mr. Lukas Hader from Multikraft Production Austria for providing the EM solution, technical advice on EM and encouragement during this research. My acknowledgments are extended to Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Production and the Department of Soil Science for the technical advice and logistic supports during this study, and also gratitude to all my relatives and friends who directly or indirectly contributed to the completion of this research work.

References

  1. Africa Rice Center (WARDA)/FAO/SSA (2008) NERICA: the new rice for Africa_ A Compendium. EA Somado, RG Guei and SO Keya (eds). Cotonou, Benin: Africa Rice Center (WARDA); Rome, Italy: FAO; Tokyo, Japan: Sasakawa Africa AssociationGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad R, HussainT, JilaniG, Shahid SA, Naheed Akhtar S, Abbas MA (1993) Use of effective microorganisms for sustainable crop production in Pakistan. In: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Effective Microorganisms (EM). 17-19 November 1993, Saraburi, Thailand, p 15–27Google Scholar
  3. Ceesay MM (2004) Management of rice production systems to increase productivity in the Gambia West Africa. A dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of PhilosophyGoogle Scholar
  4. De Datta SK (1975) Upland rice around the world. In: Major research in upland rice. (Edited by International Rice Research Institute). International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, p 2-11Google Scholar
  5. Fageria NK (2010) Optimal nitrogen fertilization timing for upland rice. National Rice and Bean Research Center of Embrapa, Brazil. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1- 6 August, 2010, Brisbane, Australia, p 176–179Google Scholar
  6. Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Jones CA (1997) Growth and mineral nutrition of field crops, second edition revised and expanded. Marcel Dekker, INC, New York. Basel. Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  7. Fageria NK, Moreira A, Coelho AM (2011) Yield and yield components of upland rice as influenced by nitrogen sources. J Plant Nutr 34:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. FAO (2010) FAOSTAT data. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. Accessed6 Sept 2012
  9. Fatumbi AO, Ncube L (2009) Activities of effective microorganisms (EM) on the nutrient dynamics of different organic materials applied to soil. Am Eurasian J Agron 2(1):26–35Google Scholar
  10. GenStat (2011) Statistical package. Fourteenth Edition. VSN International Ltd. http://www.genstat.co.un/
  11. Gomez KA (1972) Techniques for field experiments with rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los BanosGoogle Scholar
  12. Gomez AK, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedure for agricultural research. WileyGoogle Scholar
  13. Gupta PC, O’toole JC (1986) Upland rice: a global perspective. International Rice Research Institute Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  14. Harding SS, Jalloh AB (2011) Evaluation of the relative weed competitiveness of upland rice varieties in Sierra Leone. African J Plant Sci 5(7):396–400Google Scholar
  15. Hesse PR (1984) Potential of organic materials for soil improvement In: Organic matter and rice. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines, p 35–43Google Scholar
  16. Higa T, Kanal A (1998) An earth saving revolution ii: EM—amazing application to agricultural, environmental, and medical problems, first edition, Sunmark Publishing Inc., Sunmark Bldg., 1-32-13, Takadanobaba, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  17. Hussain T, Jillani G, Javaid T (1995) Development of nature farming for sustainable crop production with EM technology in Pakistan. Proceedings 4th International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming. June, 19-21, 1995, Paris, France, p 71–78Google Scholar
  18. Jilani G (1997) Utilization of organic amendments and effective microorganisms (EM) to enhance soil quality for sustainable crop production. A thesis submitted to fulfil the requirements of PhD to the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  19. Kajiru GJ, Mrema JP, Rwehumbiza FB (2011) Soil fertility status and response of rice to soil amendments: improvement of rice productivity through rain water harvesting and soil amendments. Lambart Academic , SaarbruckenGoogle Scholar
  20. Kanyeka ZL, Msomba SW, Kihupi AN, Penza MSF (1994) Rice ecosystems in Tanzania: characterization and classification. Res Train Newsletter 9(1-2):13–15Google Scholar
  21. Khan NI, Malik AU, Umer F, Bodla MI (2010) Effect of tillage and farmyard manure on the physical properties of soil. Int Res J Plant Sci 1(4):075–082Google Scholar
  22. MAFC (2009) National rice development strategy final draft. Dar es salaam, Tanzania. http://www.kilimo.go.tz
  23. Mghase JJ, Shiwachi H, Nakasone K, Takahashi H (2010) Agronomic and socio economic constraints to higher yield of upland rice in Tanzania. Afr J Agric Res 5(2):150–158Google Scholar
  24. Montgomery DC (2004) Design and analysis of experiments, 5th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Nyambo BT (1983) Historical and background information on the research center and its substations. In: Ukiriguru 50 years of research 1932 to 1982, the golden jubilee. Published by Tanzania Agricultural Research Organization, Ukiriguru Research Institute, p 11–13Google Scholar
  26. Okalebo JR, Gathua KW, Woommer PL (1993) Laboratory methods of soil and plant analysis. A working manual. KARI and RostGoogle Scholar
  27. Opala PA, Okalebo JR, Othieno CO (2012) Effects of organic and inorganic materials on soil acidity and phosphorus availability in a soil incubation study. International Scholarly Research Network (ISRN) Agronomy, Article ID 597216Google Scholar
  28. Palm CA, Myers RJK and Nandwa SM (1997) Combined use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources for soil fertility replenishment. In: Replenishing soil fertility in Africa. Buresh et al. (ed) Soil Science Society of Agronomy Special Publication Number 51, Soil Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, USA,p 193-217Google Scholar
  29. Palm CA, Giller KE, Mafongoya PL, Swift MS (2001) Management of organic matter in the tropics: translating theory into practice. Nutr Cycl Agro ecosyst 61:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pandey N, Sarawgi AK, Rastogi NK, Triphathi RS (1999) Effect of farmyard manure and chemical N fertilizer on grain yield and quality of scented rice (Oryza sativa) varieties. Indian J Agric Sci 69(9):621–623Google Scholar
  31. Prasad R, Power JF (1997) Soil fertility management for sustainable agriculture. CRC Press Lewis Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Saidia PS, Chilagane DA, Wostry A and Maro JF (2010) Evaluation of EM technology on maize (Zea mays L.) Growth, development and yield in Morogoro Tanzania. A Research Report, Bustani ya Tushikamane (ByT) Kilakala, Morogoro. http://kilimo.org/WordPress/?page_id=336. Accessed 12 Dec 2011
  33. Sanginga N, Woomer PL (2009) Integrated soil fertility management in Africa: principles, practices and developmental process. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  34. Satyanarayana V, Vara Prasad PV, Murthy VRK, Boote KJ (2002) Influence of integrated use of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and yield components of irrigated lowland rice. J Plant Nutr 25(10):2081–2090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sharifuddin HAH, Samy SJ, Xaviar A and Rahman AB (2010) Effect of EM on rice production and methane emission from paddy fields in Malaysia. http://emrojapan.com/emdb/content/142.html. Accessed 20 Jul 2012
  36. Sharma AR (1995) Fertilizer use in rice and rice based cropping system. Fertilizer News 40(5):29–41Google Scholar
  37. Snijders P, Onduru D, Wouters B, Gachimbi L, Zake J, Ebanyat P, Ergano K, Abduke M, Keulen H (2009) Cattle manure management in East Africa: review of manure quality and nutrient losses and scenarios for cattle and manure management. Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Report 258. http://www.livestockresearch.wur.nl
  38. Takash K, Masaki S, Shoji K, Masanobu S, Hiroyasu O, Aki F and Somlaki P (1999) Kyusei nature farming and the technology of effective microorganisms: guideline for practical use, Revised Edition, Published by APNAN Bangkok-Thailand and INFRC Atami-JapanGoogle Scholar
  39. Temba RJN (1999) Response of maize to different nitrogen fertilizers applied to three major soil types in Kilimanjaro region. Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  40. Wopereis MCS, Defoer T, Idinoba P, Diack S and Dugue MJ (2008) Participatory learning and action research (PLAR) for integrated rice management (IRM) in inland valleys of sub-Saharan Africa: Technical Manual. WARDA Training Series. Cotonou, Benin: Africa Rice CentreGoogle Scholar
  41. Yoshinda S (1981) Fundamentals of rice crop science. Internacional Rice Research Institute, Los BanosGoogle Scholar
  42. Zacharia PP (1993) Studies on the application of effective microorganisms (EM) in paddy, sugar cane and vegetable in India. Proceeding 2nd Conference on EM. 17-19 November 1993, Saraburi, Thailand, p 31–41Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agriculture Research and Development Institute UkiriguruMwanzaTanzania
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania

Personalised recommendations