Review of Philosophy and Psychology

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 153–165

Distributed Remembering Through Active Structuring of Activities and Environments

  • Nils Dahlbäck
  • Mattias Kristiansson
  • Fredrik Stjernberg
Article

Abstract

In this paper, we consider a few actual cases of mnemonic strategies among older subjects (older than 65). The cases are taken from an ethnographic study, examining how elderly adults cope with cognitive decline. We believe that these cases illustrate that the process of remembering in many cases involve a complex distributed web of processes involving both internal or intracranial and external sources. Our cases illustrate that the nature of distributed remembering is shaped by and subordinated to the dynamic characteristics of the on-going activity and to our minds suggest that research on memory and distributed cognition should focus on the process of remembering through detailed descriptions and analysis of naturally occurring situations.

References

  1. Bäckman, L., and R.A. Dixon. 1992. Psychological compensation: A theoretical framework. Psychological Bulletin 112(2): 259–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baltes, P.B. 1997. On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny. American Psychologist 52(4): 366–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bourgeois, M.S., C. Camp, M. Rose, B. White, M. Malone, J. Carr, and M. Rovine. 2003. A comparison of training strategies to enhance use of external aids by persons with dementia. Journal of Communication Disorders 36(5): 361–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cavanaugh, J.C., J.G. Grady, and M. Perlmutter. 1983. Forgetting and use of memory aids in 20 to 70 year olds everyday life. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 17(2): 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, A. 2005. Beyond the flesh: Some lessons from a mole cricket. Artificial Life 11(1–2): 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, A. (2008). Supersizing the mind: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, A., and D. Chalmers. 1998. The extended mind. Analysis 58(1): 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craik, F.I.M., and E. Bialystok. 2008. Lifespan cognitive development. In The handbook of aging and cognition, ed. F.I.M. Craik and T.A. Salthouse, 557–601. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dahlbäck, N., M. Kristiansson, K. Skagerlund, and F. Stjernberg. 2011. Two ways of grounding the discussion on extended cognition. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, ed. L. Carlson, C. Hölscher, and T. Shipley, 2347–2352. Boston: Cognitive Science Society.Google Scholar
  10. De Frias, C.M., R.A. Dixon, and L. Bäckman. 2003. Use of memory compensation strategies is related to psychosocial and health indicators. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 58(1): 12–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Léon, D. (2003). Artefactual Intelligence: The development and use of cognitively congenial artefacts. PhD Thesis. Lund University.Google Scholar
  12. Dixon, R.A. 1999. Exploring cognition in interactive situations: The aging of N + 1 minds. In Social cognition and aging, ed. T.M. Hess and F. Blanchard-Fields, 267–290. San Diego: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dixon, R.A., and L. Bäckman. 1995. Concepts of compensation: Integrated, differentiated, and Janus-faced. In Compensating for psychological deficits and declines: Managing losses and promoting gains, ed. R.A. Dixon and L. Bäckman, 3–20. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Dixon, R.A., C.M. De Frias, and L. Bäckman. 2001. Characteristics of self-reported memory compensation in older adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 23(5): 650–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dixon, R.A., G.A. Hopp, A.-L. Cohen, C.M. De Frias, and L. Bäckman. 2003. Self-reported memory compensation: Similar patterns in Alzheimer’s disease and very old adult samples. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 25(3): 382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fauconnier, G. 1997. Mappings in thought and language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harris, C.B., P.G. Keil, J. Sutton, A.J. Barnier, and D.J.F. McIlwain. 2011. We remember, we forget: Collaborative remembering in older couples. Discourse Processes 48(4): 267–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayes-Roth, B., and F. Hayes-Roth. 1979. A cognitive model of planning. Cognitive Science 3(4): 275–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hazlehurst, B.L. 1996. Fishing for cognition: An ethnography of fishing practice in a community on the west coast of Sweden. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.Google Scholar
  20. Hollnagel, E., D.D. Woods, and N. Leveson. 2006. Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts. Farnham: Ashgate Pub Co.Google Scholar
  21. Hollnagel, E., J. Pariès, D.D. Woods, and J. Wreathall. 2011. Resilience engineering in practice: A guidebook. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  22. Hutchins, E. 1995a. Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hutchins, E. 1995b. How a cockpit remembers its speeds. Cognitive Science 19: 265–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hutchins, E. 2005. Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 1555–1577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Intons-Peterson, M.J., and J. Fournier. 1986. External and internal memory aids: When and how often do we use them? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115(3): 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kirsh, D. 1996. Adapting the environment instead of oneself. Adaptive Behavior 4(3–4): 415–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kirsh, D. 2009. Problem solving and situated cognition. In The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition, ed. P. Robbins and M. Aydede, 264–306. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kristiansson, M. (2011). Memory, aging and external memory aids: Two traditions of cognitive research and their implications for a successful development of memory augmentation. Master’s Thesis. Linköping University.Google Scholar
  29. Kvavilashvili, L., and L. Fisher. 2007. Is time-based prospective remembering mediated by self-initiated rehearsals? Role of incidental cues, ongoing activity, age, and motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General 136(1): 112–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lave, J. 1988. Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leontiev, A.N. 1978. Activity, consciousness, and personality. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  32. Long, T.E., K.A. Cameron, K.A. Harju, J. Lutz, and L.W. Means. 1999. Women and middle-aged individuals report using more prospective memory aids. Psychological Reports 1139–1153(85): 3.Google Scholar
  33. Matthen, M. 2010. Is memory preservation? Philosophical Studies 148(1): 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McDaniel, M.A., G.O. Einstein, and L.L. Jacoby. 2008. New considerations in aging and memory. In The handbook of aging and cognition, ed. F.I.M. Craik and T.A. Salthouse, 251–310. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  35. Menary, R. 2010. The extended mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Michaelian, K. 2011. Generative memory. Philosophical Psychology 24(3): 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Michaelian, K. 2012. Is external memory memory? Biological memory and extended mind. Consciousness and Cognition. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2012.04.008.
  38. Neisser, U. 1982. Memory observed: Remembering in natural contexts. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  39. Nilsson, L.-G. 2003. Memory function in normal aging. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 179: 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Norman, D.A. 1991. Cognitive Artifacts. In Designing interaction: Psychology at the human–computer interface, ed. J.M. Carroll, 17–38. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Park, D. C., and M. Minear. 2004. Cognitive aging: New directions for old theories. In New frontiers in cognitive aging, eds. R. A. Dixon, and L. Bäckman (Eds.) (pp. 19–40). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Salomon, G. 1993. Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Salthouse, T. 2011. Consequences of age-related cognitive declines. Annual Review of Psychology 63(5): 1–26.Google Scholar
  44. Sutton, D. 2009a. The mindful kitchen, the embodied cook: Tools, technology and knowledge transmission on a Greek Island. Material Culture Review 70(Fall): 63–68.Google Scholar
  45. Sutton, J. 2009b. The feel of the world: Exograms, habits, and the confusion of types of memory. In Memento: Philosophers on film, ed. A. Kania, 65–86. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Sutton, J. 2010. Exograms and interdisciplinarity: History, the extended mind and the civilizing process. In The extended mind, ed. R. Menary, 189–226. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  47. Tribble, E.B. 2005. Distributing cognition in the globe. Shakespeare Quarterly 56(2): 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tribble, E.B. 2011. Cognition in the Globe: Attention and memory in Shakespeare’s theatre. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vygotsky, L.S. 1978. Mind in society—The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Wu, M., J. Birnholtz, B. Richards, R. Baecker, M. Massimi, S. G. Street, and K. Hall. 2008. Collaborating to remember: A distributed cognition account of families coping with memory impairments. In Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 825–834.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nils Dahlbäck
    • 1
  • Mattias Kristiansson
    • 1
  • Fredrik Stjernberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information ScienceLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Culture and CommunicationLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations