Recent studies suggest that brand awareness and brand image do not directly influence future purchases and brand knowledge alone is not sufficient for building strong brands. Keller’s reflections, particularly pointing to a small group of highly engaged customers, call for a rethink on brand equity in the light of a fast-developing digital world. Research also indicate that in a sharing economy, there is a transformation of customer identity and identification with brand communities leads to positive outcomes. While the idea of brand community has existed for almost two decades, its role in strategic brand management is not explored. With the ideas rooted in a cognitive culture and social identity, the differential effect of brand culture—the collective memory of a brand community—can be conceptualized as community-based brand equity (CommBBE). By advancing Keller’s customer-based brand equity (CBBE) model, this paper rejuvenates the idea of the memory-based differential effect of a brand. Conceptualizing CommBBE may guide practitioners in managing brand equity in a digitally connected world. It may trigger a series of studies to provide more refined measures and directions for brand building.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
16,184 citations as per Google scholar accessed on May 10, 2018
American Marketing Association social Media Success Metrics-A Special Report, 2016
Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 102–120.
Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347–356.
Achterberg, W., Pot, A. M., Kerkstra, A., Ooms, M., Muller, M., & Ribbe, M. (2003). The effect of depression on social engagement in newly admitted Dutch nursing home residents. The Gerontologist, 43(2), 213–218.
Adjei, M. T., Noble, S. M., & Noble, C. H. (2010). The influence of C2C communications in online brand communities on customer purchase behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(5), 634–653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-009-0178-5.
Ailawadi, K. L., Lehmann, D. R., & Neslin, S. A. (2003). Revenue premium as an outcome measure of brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 67(4), 1–17.
Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M., & Herrmann, A. (2005). The social influence of Brand Community: Evidence from European Car clubs. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.22.214.171.124363.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1–18.
Amir, E., & Lev, B. (1996). Value-relevance of nonfinancial information: The wireless communications industry. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 22(1–3), 3–30.
Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: Findings from Sweden. The Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53–66.
Aron, A., Lewandowski, G. W., Jr., Mashek, D., & Aron, E. N. (2013). The self-expansion model of motivation and cognition in close relationships. The Oxford handbook of close relationships, 90–115.
Arvidsson, A., & Caliandro, A. (2016). Brand public. Journal of Consumer Research, 42(5), 727–748. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucv053.
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. The Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.ObO13e31812e5535.
Assmann, J. (2011). Communicative and cultural memory. In Cultural Memories (pp. 15–27). Springer.
Assmann, J. (2013). Communicative and cultural memory.
Assmann, J., & Czaplicka, J. (1995). Collective memory and cultural identity. New German Critique, 65, 125–133.
Avery, J. (2012). Defending the markers of masculinity: Consumer resistance to brand gender-bending. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 322–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2012.04.005.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Dholakia, U. M. (2006). Antecedents and purchase consequences of customer participation in small group brand communities. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(1), 45–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2006.01.005.
Bagozzi, R. P., Dholakia, U. M., & Mookerjee, A. (2006). Individual and group bases of social influence in online environments. Media Psychology, 8(2), 95–126.
Balsano, A. B. (2005). Youth civic engagement in the United States: Understanding and addressing the impact of social impediments on positive youth and community development. Applied Developmental Science, 9(4), 188–201.
Bansal, H. S., Irving, P. G., & Taylor, S. F. (2004). A three-component model of customer commitment to service providers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(3), 234–250. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070304263332.
Barth, M. E., Clement, M. B., Foster, G., & Kasznik, R. (1998). Brand values and capital market valuation. Review of Accounting Studies, 3(1–2), 41–68.
Becker, H., Naaman, M., & Gravano, L. (2010). Learning similarity metrics for event identification in social media. In Proceedings of the third ACM international conference on Web search and data mining (pp. 291–300).
Belk, R. (2010). Sharing. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(5), 715–734. https://doi.org/10.1086/612649.
Belk, R. (2014). You are what you can access: Sharing and collaborative consumption online. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1595–1600.
Belk, R., & Tumbat, G. (2005). The cult of Macintosh. Consumption Markets & Culture, 8(3), 205–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253860500160403.
Bender, B. (1978). Gatherer-hunter to farmer: A social perspective. World Archaeology, 10(2), 204–222.
Botsman, R., & Rogers, R. (2011). What’s mine is yours: How collaborative consumption is changing the way we live.
Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measures? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(May), 52–68. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.73.3.52.
Breitsohl, J., Kunz, W. H., & Dowell, D. (2015). Does the host match the content? A taxonomical update on online consumption communities. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(9), 1040–1064. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1036102.
Brockmeier, J. (2002). Remembering and forgetting: Narrative as cultural memory. Culture & Psychology, 8(1), 15–43.
Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Juric, B., & Ilic, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 252–271. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670511411703.
Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 105–114.
Brown, S., Kozinets, R. V., Sherry, J. F., Jr., Kozinets, V., & Sherry, J. F. (2003). Teaching old brands new tricks: Retro branding and the revival of brand meaning. Journal of Marketing, 67(3), 19–33. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.126.96.36.19957.
Canniford, R. (2011). How to manage consumer tribes. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(7), 591–606.
Carlson, B. D., Suter, T. A., & Brown, T. J. (2008). Social versus psychological brand community: The role of psychological sense of brand community. Journal of Business Research, 61(4), 284–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.06.022.
Carroll, E., & Romano, J. (2011). Your digital afterlife: When Facebook. Flickr and Twitter are your real estate, What is Your Legacy.
Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2015). Co-creating the collective service experience. Journal of Service Management, 26(2), 276–294.
Catteeuw, F., Flynn, E., & Vonderhorst, J. (2007). Employee engagement: Boosting productivity in turbulent times. Organization Development Journal, 25(2).
Cobb-Walgren, C. J., Ruble, C. A., & Donthu, N. (1995). Brand equity, brand preference, and purchase intent. Journal of Advertising, 24(3), 25–40.
Cooper, T., Stavros, C., & Dobele, A. R. (2019). The levers of engagement: An exploration of governance in an online brand community. Journal of Brand Management, 26(3), 240–254.
Cova, B. (1997). Community and consumption: Towards a definition of the “linking value” of product or services. European Journal of Marketing, 31(3/4), 297–316.
Cova, B., & Pace, S. (2006). Brand community of convenience products: new forms of customer empowerment – the case “my Nutella The Community”. European Journal of Marketing, 40(9/10), 1087–1105. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560610681023.
Cova, B., & White, T. (2010). Counter-brand and alter-brand communities: The impact of web 2.0 on tribal marketing approaches. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(3–4), 256–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/02672570903566276.
Cova, B., Pace, S., & Skålén, P. (2015). Brand volunteering: Value co-creation with unpaid consumers. Marketing Theory, 15(4), 465–485. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593115568919.
de Chernatony, L. (2001). Succeeding with brands on the internet. Journal of Brand Management, 8(3), 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540019.
Dholakia, U. M., Bagozzi, R. P., & Pearo, L. K. (2004). A social influence model of consumer participation in network- and small-group-based virtual communities. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(3), 241–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2003.12.004.
Downer, J. T., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Pianta, R. C. (2007). How do classroom conditions and children’s risk for school problems contribute to children’s behavioral engagement in learning? School Psychology Review, 36(3), 413–433.
Erdem, T., & Swait, J. (2001). Brand equity as a signaling. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7(2), 131–157.
Esch, F.-R., Langner, T., Schmitt, B. H., & Geus, P. (2006). Are brands forever? How brand knowledge and relationships affect current and future purchases. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(2), 98–105.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1980). Predicting and understanding consumer behavior: Attitude-behavior correspondence. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, 148–172.
Fisher, D., & Smith, S. (2011). Cocreation is chaotic: What it means for marketing when no one has control. Marketing Theory, 11(3), 325–350. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593111408179.
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. The Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–373. https://doi.org/10.2307/3152199.
Fournier, S., & Lee, L. (2009). Getting brand communities right. Harvard Business Review, 87(4), 105–111.
Fullerton, G. (2005). The impact of brand commitment on loyalty to retail service brands. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 22(2), 97–110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1936-4490.2005.tb00712.x.
Gambetti, R. C., & Graffigna, G. (2015). Value co-creation between the “inside” and the “outside” of a company: Insights from a brand community failure. Marketing Theory, 15(2), 155–178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593114545004.
Goodenough, W. H. (1957). Oceania and the problem of controls in the study of cultural and human evolution. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 66(2), 146–155.
Goodenough, W. H. (1971). Corporations: Reply to Cochrane. American Anthropologist, 73(5), 1150–1152.
Goulding, C., Shankar, A., & Canniford, R. (2013). Learning to be tribal: Facilitating the formation of consumer tribes. European Journal of Marketing, 47(5/6), 813–832.
Grudens-Schuck, N. (2000). Conflict and engagement: An empirical study of a farmer-extension partnership in a sustainable agriculture program. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 13(1), 79–100.
Gruen, T. W., Summers, J. O., & Acito, F. (2000). Relationship marketing activities, commitment, and membership behaviors in professional associations. Journal of Marketing, 64(3), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.188.8.131.5230.
Gruen, T. W., Osmonbekov, T., & Czaplewski, A. J. (2007). Customer-to-customer exchange: Its MOA antecedents and its impact on value creation and loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(4), 537–549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-006-0012-2.
Gusfield, J. R. (1975). Community: A critical response. New York: Harper & Row.
Guthrie, J. T., & Cox, K. E. (2001). Classroom conditions for motivation and engagement in reading. Educational Psychology Review, 13(3), 283–302.
Hakala, H., Niemi, L., & Kohtamäki, M. (2017). Online brand community practices and the construction of brand legitimacy. Marketing Theory, 17(4), 537–558. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593117705695.
Halbwachs, M. (1925). On collective memory.
Hanson, S., Jiang, L., & Dahl, D. (2019). Enhancing consumer engagement in an online brand community via user reputation signals: A multi-method analysis. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(2), 349–367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-018-0617-2.
Hatch, M. J., & Schultz, M. (2010). Toward a theory of brand co-creation with implications for brand governance. Journal of Brand Management, 17(8), 590–604. https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2010.14.
Hickman, T. M., & Ward, J. C. (2013). Implications of brand communities for rival brands: Negative brand ratings, negative stereotyping of their consumers and negative word-of-mouth. Journal of Brand Management, 20(6), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2012.57.
Hodis, M. A., Sriramachandramurthy, R., & Sashittal, H. C. (2015). Interact with me on my terms: A four segment Facebook engagement framework for marketers. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(11–12), 1255–1284. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1012535.
Hoeffler, S., & Keller, K. L. (2003). The marketing advantages of strong brands. Journal of Brand Management, 10(6), 421–445. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540139.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural dimensions in management and planning. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 1(January), 81–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01733682.
Hogg, M. A., & Cooper, J. (2003). The sage handbook of social psychology. Sage.
Hogg, M. A., Hohman, Z. P., & Rivera, J. E. (2008). Why do people join groups? Three motivational accounts from social psychology. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(3), 1269–1280.
Hollebeek, L. D. (2011). Demystifying customer brand engagement: Exploring the loyalty nexus. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7–8), 785–807. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2010.500132.
Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 149–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2013.12.002.
Hung, K., Li, S., & Tse, D. (2011). Interpersonal trust and platform credibility in a chinese multibrand online community: Effects on brand variety seeking and time spent. Journal of Advertising, 40(3), 99–112. https://doi.org/10.2753/JOA0091-3367400308.
Jiao, Y., Ertz, M., Jo, M.-S., & Sarigollu, E. (2018). Social value , content value , and brand equity in social media brand communities A comparison of Chinese and US consumers. International Marketing Review, 35(1), 18–41. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-07-2016-0132.
Kapferer, J.-N. (2012). The new strategic brand management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
Keesing, R. M. (1974). Theories of culture. Annual Review of Anthropology, 3(1), 73–97.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(January), 1–22.
Keller, K. L. (2001). Building customer-based brand equity: A blueprint for creating strong brands. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.
Keller, K. L. (2003). Brand synthesis: The multidimensionality of brand knowledge. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4), 595–600. https://doi.org/10.1086/346254.
Keller, K. L. (2009). Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2–3), 139–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527260902757530.
Keller, K. L. (2016). Reflections on customer-based brand equity: Perspectives, progress, and priorities. AMS Review, 6(1–2), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13162-016-0078-z.
Keller, K. L., & Lehman, D. R. (2006). Brands and branding. Marketing Science, 25(6), 740–759. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.l050.0153.
Keller, K. L., Parameswaran, M. G., & Jacob, I. (2011). Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity. India: Pearson Education.
Kjeldgaard, D., & Bode, M. (2017). Broadening the brandfest: Play and ludic agency. European Journal of Marketing, 51(1), 23–43. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-12-2015-0826.
Kozinets, R. V. (2001). Utopian Enterprise: Articulating the meanings of star trek ‘s culture of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 67–88. https://doi.org/10.1086/321948.
Kozinets, R. V., Hemetsberger, A., & Schau, H. J. (2008). The wisdom of consumer crowds: Collective innovation in the age of networked marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 28(4), 339–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146708325382.
Lam, S. K., Ahearne, M., Hu, Y., & Schillewaert, N. (2010). Resistance to brand switching when a radically new brand is introduced: A social identity theory perspective. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 128–146. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.74.6.128.
Lawer, C., & Knox, S. (2006). Customer advocacy and brand development. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 15(2), 121–129. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420610658956.
Luo, N., Zhang, M., & Liu, W. (2015). The effects of value co-creation practices on building harmonious brand community and achieving brand loyalty on social media in China. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 492–499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.020.
Lusch, R. F., & Nambisan, S. (2015). Service innovation: A service-dominant logic perspective. MIS Quarterly, 39(1), 155–175. https://doi.org/10.25300/MISQ/2015/39.1.07.
Madupu, V., & Cooley, D. O. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of online brand community participation: A conceptual framework. Journal of Internet Commerce, 9(2), 127–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332861.2010.503850.
McAlexander, J. H., Schouten, J. W., & Koenig, H. F. (2002). Building Brand Community. Journal of Marketing, 66(1), 38–54.
McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Vargo, S. L., Dagger, T. S., Sweeney, J. C., & van Kasteren, Y. (2012). Health care customer value cocreation practice styles. Journal of Service Research, 15(4), 370–389.
McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6–23. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(198601)14:1<6::AID-JCOP2290140103>3.0.CO;2-I.
Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 514–523.
Meek, S., Ogilvie, M., Lambert, C., & Ryan, M. M. (2019a). Contextualising social capital in online brand communities. Journal of Brand Management, 26(4), 426–444. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-018-00145-3.
Meek, S., Ryan, M., Lambert, C., & Ogilvie, M. (2019b). A multidimensional scale for measuring online brand community social capital ( OBCSC ) ☆. Journal of Business Research, 100(April), 234–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.03.036.
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York: Guilford Press.
Mittal, B., & Lee, M.-S. (1989). A causal model of consumer involvement. Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(3), 363–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4870(89)90030-5.
Moeller, S., Ciuchita, R., Mahr, D., Odekerken-Schröder, G., & Fassnacht, M. (2013). Uncovering collaborative value creation patterns and establishing corresponding customer roles. Journal of Service Research, 16(4), 471–487. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670513480851.
Muniz, A. M., Jr., & O’Guinn, T. C. (1996). Brand community and the sociology of brands. Advances in Consumer Research, 23, 265.
Muñiz, A. M., Jr., & Schau, H. J. (2005). Religiosity in the abandoned apple Newton brand community. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 737–747. https://doi.org/10.1086/426607.
Muniz, A. M., & O’Guinn, T. C. (2001). Brand Community. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4), 412–432.
Murdough, C. (2009). Social media measurement: It’s not impossible. Journal of interactive advertising, 10(1), 94–99.
Neff, J. (2007). OMD proves the power of engagement. Advertising Age, 78(27), 3–4.
Netemeyer, R. G., Krishnan, B., Pullig, C., Wang, G., Yagci, M., Dean, D., Ricks, J., & Wirth, F. (2004). Developing and validating measures of facets of customer-based brand equity. Journal of Business Research, 57(2), 209–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00303-4.
Nora, P. (1989). Between memory and history: Les Lieux de Mémoire. Representations, 26 (Special Issue: Memory and counter-memory (Spring, 1989)), 7–24.
O’Sullivan, S. R. (2016). The branded carnival: The dark magic of consumer excitement. Journal of Marketing Management, 32(9–10), 1033–1058. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2016.1161656.
O’Sullivan, S. R., Richardson, B., & Collins, A. (2011). How brand communities emerge: The beamish conversion experience. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(9/10), 891–912. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2011.565684.
Pomerantz, N. K. (2006). Student engagement: A new paradigm for student affairs. College Student Affairs Journal, 25(2), 176–185.
Pongsakornrungsilp, S., & Schroeder, J. E. (2011). Understanding value co-creation in a co-consuming brand community. Marketing Theory, 11(3), 303–324. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593111408178.
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.20015.
Reicher, S. D. (1982). The determination of collective behaviour. Social identity and intergroup relations, 41–83.
Ridings, C. M., & Gefen, D. (2004). Virtual community attraction: Why people hang out online. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(1), JCMC10110.
Roberts, D. R., & Davenport, T. O. (2002). Job engagement: Why it’s important and how to improve it. Employment Relations Today, 29(3), 21–29.
Rothschild, M. L., & Gaidis, W. C. (1981). Behavioral learning theory : Its relevance to marketing and promotions. Journal of Marketing, 45(2), 70–78.
Rowley, J., Kupiec-Teahan, B., & Leeming, E. (2007). Customer community and co-creation: A case study. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 25(2), 136–146.
Saczynski, J. S., Pfeifer, L. A., Masaki, K., Korf, E. S. C., Laurin, D., White, L., & Launer, L. J. (2006). The effect of social engagement on incident dementia: The Honolulu-Asia aging study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(5), 433–440.
Scarpi, D. (2010). Does size matter? An examination of small and large web-based brand communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 24(1), 14–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2009.10.002.
Schau, H. J., Muñiz, A. M., & Arnould, E. J. (2009). How Brand Community practices create value. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 30–51. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.73.5.30.
Schembri, S., & Latimer, L. (2016). Online brand communities: Constructing and co-constructing brand culture. Journal of Marketing Management, 32(7–8), 628–651. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1117518.
Schmitt, B. (2012). The consumer psychology of brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.09.005.
Schouten, J. W., McAlexander, J. H., & Koenig, H. F. (2007). Transcendent customer experience and brand community. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(3), 357–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-007-0034-4.
Sedley, R., & Perks, M. (2008). Six theses on digital customer engagement in a troubled economy. Accessed February, 21, 2010.
Sherif, M. (1935). A study of some social factors in perception. Archives of Psychology (Columbia University).
Simon, B., & Brown, R. (1987). Perceived intragroup homogeneity in minority-majority contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(4), 703–711. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063.
Simon, C. J., & Sullivan, M. W. (1993). The measurement and determinants of brand equity: A financial approach. Marketing Science, 12(1), 28–52.
Sivakumar, K., & Raj, S. P. (1997). Quality tier competition: How price change influences brand choice and category choice. Journal of Marketing, 61(3), 71–84.
Stafford, J. E. (1966). Effects of group influences on consumer brand preferences. Journal of Marketing Research, 3(1), 68–75.
Swaminathan, V. (2016). Branding in the digital era: New directions for research on customer-based brand equity. AMS Review, 6(1–2), 33–38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13162-016-0077-0.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. The social psychology of intergroup relations, 33(47), 74.
Thompson, S. A., & Sinha, R. K. (2008). Brand communities and new product adoption:The influence and limits of oppositional loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 72(6), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.72.6.65.
Thomson, M., Macinnis, D. J., & Park, C. W. (2005). The ties that bind : Measuring the strength of consumers ’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.
Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom (Vol. 2). Murray.
Vargo, S. L. (2008). Customer integration and value creation: Paradigmatic traps and perspectives. Journal of Service Research, 11(2), 211–215. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670508324260.
Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.220.127.116.1136.
Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-007-0069-6.
Voyles, B. (2007). Beyond loyalty: Meeting the challenge of customer engagement. Economist Intelligence Unit, 1–15.
Wertsch, J. V., & Roediger, H. L. (2008). Collective memory: Conceptual foundations and theoretical approaches. Memory, 16(3), 318–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210701801434.
Whan Park, C., MacInnis, D. J., Priester, J., Eisingerich, A. B., & Iacobucci, D. (2010). Brand attachment and brand attitude strength: Conceptual and empirical differentiation of two critical brand equity drivers. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.74.6.1.
Williams, R. L., & Cothrel, J. (2000). Four smart ways to run online communities. MIT Sloan Management Review, 41(4), 81.
Yadav, M. S., & Pavlou, P. a. (2014). Marketing in computer-mediated envorironments: Research synthesis and new directions. Journal of Marketing, 78(January 2014), 20–40. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.12.0020.
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1–14.
Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lee, S. (2000). An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195–211.
Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : Measuring the involvement construct *. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341–352.
Zhou, Z., Zhang, Q., Su, C., & Zhou, N. (2012). How do brand communities generate brand relationships? Intermediate mechanisms. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 890–895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.06.034.
Zhou, Z., Wu, J. P., Zhang, Q., & Xu, S. (2013). Transforming visitors into members in online brand communities: Evidence from Chin.a. Journal of Business Research, 66(12), 2438–2443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.05.032.
Zhu, D. H., Sun, H., & Chang, Y. P. (2016). Effect of social support on customer satisfaction and citizenship behavior in online brand communities: The moderating role of support source. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 287–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.04.013.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Purani, K., Jeesha, K. Community based brand equity as brand culture: advancing brand equity conceptualization for a connected world. AMS Rev (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13162-020-00189-2
- Community-based brand equity (CommBBE)
- Brand culture
- Customer-based brand equity (CBBE)
- Collective memory
- Brand equity
- Brand Community