Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Early Childhood Development (ECD) in Ghana: Assessing the Status and Determinants of the Literacy–Numeracy, Physical, Social–Emotional, and Learning Domains

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
International Journal of Early Childhood Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Despite initiatives by key actors in the last two decades, Early Childhood Development in Ghana, measured by physical, cognitive, linguistic, and social–emotional development of children up to 8 years of age, remains poor. This study aimed to assess Ghana’s Early Childhood Development (ECD) status and determinants by analyzing the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2017/18 data. Among the 3801 Ghanaian children (35–59 months; 1880 males), 42.7% were developmentally on track in literacy–numeracy, 93.6% in physical, 68.2% in social–emotional, 82.3% in learning, and about 67% in at least 3 of the 4 domains. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest a positive association between ECD and female sex of children, their age, mothers' attendance in any ECD programs, mothers' educational qualification, and household wealth. On the other hand, evidence of a negative association was observed between ECD and child disability, stunting status of children, maternal disability, the number of days children were left alone for more than an hour, and residence in a rural area. The level of maternal education may be implicated in ECD policies as it affected several ECD domains.

Résumé

Malgré les initiatives des acteurs clés au cours des deux dernières décennies, l'indice de développement de la petite enfance (DPE), qui mesure le développement physique, cognitif, linguistique et socio-affectif des enfants jusqu'à 8 ans, reste faible au Ghana. Cette étude visait à évaluer le statut et les déterminants du développement de la petite enfance (DPE) au Ghana en analysant les données de l'enquête par grappes à indicateurs multiples 2017/18. Parmi les 3 801 enfants ghanéens (35-59 mois ; 1 880 garçons), 42,7% étaient sur la voie du développement en matière de littératie-numératie, 93,6% en matière physique, 68,2% en matière socio-émotionnelle, 82,3% en matière d'apprentissage, et environ 67% dans au moins 3 des 4 domaines. Les analyses de régression logistique multiple ont montré que l'âge était un facteur significatif commun du DPE et de ses domaines. Le niveau d'éducation de la mère peut être impliqué dans les politiques de DPE car il affecte plusieurs domaines du DPE.mots-clés : Développement de la petite enfance (DPE), indice de développement de la petite enfance (IDPE), alphabétisation-numérotation, physique, social-émotionnel, apprentissage.

Resumen

A pesar de las iniciativas de actores clave en las últimas dos décadas, el Índice de Desarrollo Infantil Temprano (ECDI, por sus siglas en inglés), que mide el desarrollo físico, cognitivo, lingüístico y socioemocional de los niños de hasta 8 años de edad, sigue siendo deficiente en Ghana. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el estado y los determinantes del Desarrollo de la Primera Infancia (ECD) de Ghana mediante el análisis de los datos de la Encuesta de Indicadores Múltiples por Conglomerados de Ghana 2017/18. Entre los 3.801 niños ghaneses (35-59 meses; 1.880 varones), el 42,7% estaba en vías de desarrollo en alfabetizaciónnumeración, el 93,6% en físico, el 68,2% en socioemocional, el 82,3% en aprendizaje y alrededor del 67% en al menos 3 de los 4 dominios. Los análisis de regresión logística múltiple mostraron que la edad era un factor común significativo del DIT y sus dominios. El nivel de educación materna puede estar implicado en las políticas de ECD, ya que afecta a varios dominios de ECD. Palabras clave: Desarrollo Infantil Temprano (ECD), Índice de Desarrollo Infantil Temprano (ECDI), alfabetización-numeración, físico, socio-emocional, aprendizaje.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, for their support and to the UNICEF MICS team for their permission to use the Ghana MICS dataset 2017/18 for analyses and publication. The data to reproduce our analyses are publicly available upon request from the UNICEF MICS website https://mics.unicef.org/surveys. Our analyses were not preregistered, and the code needed to replicate it will be made available upon request from the corresponding author.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ignitius Ezekiel Lim.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests

We did not receive any funding and have no conflict of interest to disclose.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lim, I.E., Mahmud, I., Chowdhury, M.U. et al. Early Childhood Development (ECD) in Ghana: Assessing the Status and Determinants of the Literacy–Numeracy, Physical, Social–Emotional, and Learning Domains. IJEC (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-023-00349-y

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-023-00349-y

Keywords

Navigation