Becker, D. R., McClelland, M. M., Loprinzi, P., & Trost, S. G. (2014). Physical activity, self-regulation, and early academic achievement in preschool children. Early Education & Development, 25(1), 56–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2013.780505
Campbell, S. B., Denham, S. A., Howarth, G. Z., Jones, S. M., Whittaker, J. V., Williford, A. P., Willoughby, M. T., Yudron, M., & Darling-Churchill, K. (2016). Commentary on the review of measures of early childhood social and emotional development: Conceptualization, critique, and recommendations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 19–41.
Carson, V., Hunter, S., Kuzik, N., Wiebe, S. A., Spence, J. C., Friedman, A., Tremblay, M. S., Slater, L., & Hinkley, T. (2016). Systematic review of physical activity and cognitive development in early childhood. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(7), 573–578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.011
Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., & Thomas, K. M. (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 54, 241–257.
Chen, A.-G., Yan, J., Yin, H.-G., Pan, C.-Y., & Chang, Y.-K. (2014). Effects of acute bouts of aerobic exercise on multiple aspects of executive function in preadolescent children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 627–636.
Davies, M. M. (1996). Outdoors: An important context for young children’s development. Early Child Development and Care, 115(1), 37–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443961150104
Denham, S. A., & Brown, C. (2010). “Plays nice with others”: Social–emotional learning and academic success. Early Education and Development, 21(5), 652–680. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2010.497450
Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J. L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., Lambourne, K., & Szabo-Reed, A. N. (2016). Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: A systematic review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(6), 1197–1222. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000901
Etnier, J. L., Labban, J. D., Piepmeier, A., Davis, M. E., & Henning, D. A. (2014). Effects of an acute bout of exercise on memory in 6th grade children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 26, 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2013-0141
Fjørtoft, I. (2001). The natural environment as a playground for children: The impact of outdoor play activities in pre-primary school children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 111–117. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012576913074
Frost, J. L. (1992). Play and Playscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar.
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.1.31
Humphries, M. L., Williams, B. V., & May, T. (2018). Early childhood teachers’ perspectives on social–emotional competence and learning in urban classrooms. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 34(2), 157–179.
Kahn, N. A., & Hillman, C. H. (2014). The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: A review. Pediatric Exercise Science, 26, 138–146. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2013-0125
Lundy, A., & Trawick-Smith, J. (2020). Effects of active outdoor play on preschool children’s on-task classroom behavior. Early Childhood Education Journal, 49(3), 463–471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01086-w
Mierau, A., Hülsdünker, T., Mierau, J., Hense, A., Hense, J., & Strüder, H. K. (2014). Acute exercise induces cortical inhibition and reduces arousal in response to visual stimulation in young children. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 34, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.12.009
Migueles, J. H., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Ekelund, U., Nystrom, C. D., Mora-Gonzalez, J., Lof, M., Labayen, I., Ruiz, J. R., & Ortega, F. B. (2017). Accelerometer data collection and processing criteria to assess physical activity and other outcomes: A systematic review and practical considerations. Sports Medicine, 47(9), 1821–1845. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0716-0
Montoye, A. H. K., Nelson, M. B., Bock, J. M., Imboden, M. T., Kaminsky, L. A., Mackintosh, K. A., McNarry, M. A., & Pfeiffer, K. A. (2017). Raw and count data comparability of hip-worn Actigraph GT3X+ and link accelerometers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50(5), 1103–1112. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001534
Palmer, K. K., Miller, M. W., & Robinson, L. E. (2013). Acute exercise enhances preschoolers’ ability to sustain attention. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35(4), 433–437.
Pate, R. R., Almeida, M. J., McIver, K. L., Pfeiffer, K. A., & Dowda, M. (2006). Validation and calibration of an accelerometer in preschool children. Obesity, 14(11), 2000–2006. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.234
Pesce, C., Crova, C., Cereatti, L., Casella, R., & Bellucci, M. (2009). Physical activity and mental performance in preadolescents: Effects of acute exercise on free-recall memory. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 2(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2009.02.001
Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (1985). Temperament and the development of self-regulation. In L. C. Hartlage & C. F. Telzrow (Eds.), The neuropsychology of individual differences (pp. 93–123). Springer.
Tandon, P. S., Klein, M., Saelens, B. E., Christakis, D. A., Marchese, A. J., & Lengua, L. (2018). Short term impact of physical activity versus sedentary behavior on preschoolers’ cognitive functions. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 15, 17–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2018.06.004
Tonge, K. L., Jones, R. A., & Okely, A. D. (2016). Correlates of children’s objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in early childhood education and care services: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 89, 129–139.
Trost, S. G., Ward, D. S., & Senso, M. (2010). Effects of child care policy and environment on physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(3), 520–525. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013181cea3ef
Tucker, P., van Zandvoort, M. M., Burke, S. M., & Irwin, J. D. (2011). Physical activity at daycare: Childcare providers’ perspectives for improvements. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 9, 201–219.
Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Wirth, R. J., & Greenberg, M. (2010). The measurement of executive function at age 3 years: Psychometric properties and criterion validity of a new battery of tasks. Psychological Assessment, 22(2), 306–317. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018708
Willoughby, M., & Blair, C. (2011). Test-retest reliability of a new executive function battery for use in early childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 17(6), 564–579. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2011.554390
Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Kuhn, L. J., & Magnus, B. E. (2018). The benefits of adding a brief measure of simple reaction time to the assessment of executive function skills in early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 170, 30–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.003
Willoughby, M. T., Wylie, A. C., & Catellier, D. J. (2018b). Testing the association between physical activity and executive function skills in early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 44, 82–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.03.004
Zamani, Z. (2017). Young children’s preferences: What stimulates children’s cognitive play in outdoor preschools? Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(3), 256–274. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476718X15616831
Zelazo, P. D., & Müller, U. (2010). Executive function in typical and atypical development. The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 574–603). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444325485.ch2
Zhang, B., Liu, Y., Zhao, M., Meng, X., Deng, Y., Zheng, X., Wang, X., Xiong, S., & Han, Y. (2020). Differential effects of acute physical activity on executive function in preschoolers with high and low habitual physical activity levels. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 18, 100326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2020.100326