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Perceived Barriers and Facilitators in Infant–Toddler Day care Inclusion: The Childcare Professionals’ Point of View


This research aims to analyse the barriers and facilitators to enrolling a toddler in inclusive day care facilities. Data were gathered from ten (N = 10) childcare providers who work in inclusive day care centres in Paris, France. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using the thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke in Qual Res Psychol 3(2):77–101, 2006. The emerging categories related to barriers were the challenges induced by the disability itself, childcare provider’s emotional exhaustion and parental and childcare providers’ perceptions on disability. Facilitators included space adjustment of the day care facility and adequate equipment, specialized inclusive practices, training programmes, support within the childcare team, skills recognition and sense of competence and, finally, partnerships and cooperation with specialized settings. Further implications for practice and research are discussed.


Cette étude vise à analyser les obstacles et les facilitateurs d’accueil du jeune enfant dans les structures inclusives de la petite enfance. Les données ont été cueillies auprès de dix (N=10) professionnel.les de la petite enfance qui travaillent dans des structures inclusives à Paris, France. Nous avons utilisé des entretiens semi-directifs qui sont analysées en employant l’Analyse Thématique (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Les catégories émergeantes concernant les obstacles étaient les difficultés imposées par le type de handicap, l’épuisement émotionnel des professionnel.les et les perceptions sur le handicap de la part de parents aussi bien que de professionnel.les. Les facilitateurs comprennent l’aménagement de l’espace au sein de la structure et l’équipement adéquat, des pratiques inclusives spécialisées, les programmes de formation, le soutien au sein de l’équipe, la reconnaissance de capacités et compétences et, enfin, les partenariats et la collaboration avec des structures plus spécialisées. Des implications pour la pratique et la recherche sont discutées.


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los obstáculos y facilitadores de la acogida de niños en estructuras inclusivas de la primera infancia. Se recopilaron datos de diez (N = 10) profesionales de la primera infancia que trabajan en estructuras inclusivas en París, Francia. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas que se analizan mediante Análisis Temático (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Las categorías emergentes con respecto a las barreras fueron los desafíos impuestos por el tipo de discapacidad, el agotamiento emocional profesional y las percepciones de la discapacidad por parte de los padres y los profesionales. Los facilitadores incluyen planificación espacial dentro de la instalación y equipamiento adecuado, prácticas inclusivas especializadas, programas de capacitación, apoyo dentro del equipo, reconocimiento de habilidades y competencias y, finalmente, alianzas y colaboración con estructuras más especializadas. Se discuten las implicaciones para la práctica y la investigación.

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  2. The Crescendo Association-Group SOS includes childcare centers, teaching through sports programs, mentoring, accommodation, help and guidance for children and teenagers at risk or experiencing personal challenge.

  3. In France, an early childhood educator is the equivalent of a childcare provider. These infant–toddler professionals are trained specifically to work with children under the age of three (Oberhuemer Schreyer & Neuman 2010, 495). Healthcare professionals are core professionals working with under-threes and have a healthcare qualification. This might be child-focused qualification (e.g. paediatric nurse/children’s nurse) or a general health or social care qualification for working with people of all ages (Oberhuemer Schreyer & Neuman 2010, 495).

  4. In France, a Centre for Early Medical and Social Action is social or medico-social service for screening, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up of children with disabilities from 0 to 6 years.

  5. The Service of Mother-Infant Protection (PMI) is a departmental service, under the authority of the President of the Departmental Council and responsible for ensuring the health protection of the mother and the child. Consultations and medical prevention are provided to pregnant women and children under the age of 6. It also plays an essential role in the provision of care for young children: instruction in applications for the approval of nursery assistants, implementation of training measures; Supervision and supervision of nursery assistants and childcare services for children under 6 years of age.


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We would like to thank all the childcare professionals who participated in this study and shared their experiences with us.


This research is funded by the International Foundation of Applied Research in Handicap (FIRAH, APa2017_003), the Scientific Research Group (GIS) BECO and the Research Development Unit of the University Toulouse II-Jean Jaurès (Number not applicable).

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Correspondence to Flora Koliouli.

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This study was approved (or granted exemption) by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee (University of Toulouse II-Jean Jaurès). We certify that the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Koliouli, F., Pinel-Jacquemin, S. & Zaouche Gaudron, C. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators in Infant–Toddler Day care Inclusion: The Childcare Professionals’ Point of View. IJEC 54, 165–184 (2022).

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  • Facilitators
  • Barriers
  • day care centres
  • Inclusion
  • Infant
  • Childcare providers