Methane Emissions from a Subtropical Grass Marshland, Northern Taiwan
- 296 Downloads
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas and a significant contributor to global warming. Compared to preindustrial levels, the atmospheric CH4 concentration has more than doubled. The most dominant non-anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 have been found to be natural wetlands, but CH4 fluxes from many wetlands all over the world are largely unexplored. We present the first results of eddy covariance CH4 flux measurements above a subtropical grass marshland in northern Taiwan. Our results show that this wetland, dominated by Phragmites australis and Brachiaria mutica, is a significant source of CH4. During the six-week measuring period in August and September, daily mean emissions of 145 mg CH4 m−2 were recorded. Clear diurnal variations of the CH4 fluxes were observed, peaking at 0.187 μmol m−2 s−1 in the early afternoon. Minimal emissions generally occurred between 03:30 and 06:30 h, before sunrise. Significant correlations of the CH4 flux with the latent heat flux, stomatal conductance, and relative humidity indicated that the diurnal patterns were induced by convective gas flow through the aerenchyma of the plants. Moreover, the magnitude of the CH4 emissions predominantly responded to water level fluctuations; water levels below the soil surface were associated with significantly lower CH4 emissions.
KeywordsMethane fluxes Subtropical wetland Eddy covariance Greenhouse gases Diurnal pattern Plant-mediated transport
We would like to thank Chao-Jung Fan and Ziyi Lu (National Taiwan University) for support during the setup of the eddy covariance tower and technical assistance both during and after our measuring period. We thank C. Brennecka for language-editing of the final version of the manuscript.
- Brown M, Humphreys E, Roulet NT, Moore TR, Lafleur P (2013) Divergent effects of drought on peatland methane emissions. In AGU fall meeting abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 01).Google Scholar
- Burba G (2013) Eddy covariance method for scientific, industrial, agricultural, and regulatory applications: a field book on measuring ecosystem gas exchange and areal emission rates. Lincoln, LI-COR BiosciencesGoogle Scholar
- Chiang KY, Chen TY, Lee CH et al (2013) Biogeochemical reductive release of soil embedded arsenate around a crater area (Guandu) in northern Taiwan using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Journal of Environmental Sciences 25(3):626–636. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60084-9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conrad R, Schütz H, Babbel M (1987) Temperature limitation of hydrogen turnover and methanogenesis in anoxic paddy soil. FEMS Microbiology Letters 45(5):281–289. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1987.tb02378.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Denman K et al (2007) Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. In: Solomon S et al (eds) chap. 7Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp 501–587Google Scholar
- Dinsmore KJ, Skiba UM, Billett MF, Rees RM, Drewer J (2009) Spatial and temporal variability in CH4 and N2O fluxes from a Scottish ombrotrophic peatland: implications for modelling and up-scaling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41(6):1315–1323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.03.022. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ehhalt DH (1974) The atmospheric cycle of methane. Tellus 26(1–2):58–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01952.x. Google Scholar
- Farquhar GD, Sharkey TD (1982) Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 33(1):317–345. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.001533. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Foken T, Göockede M, Mauder M et al (2004) Post-field data quality control. In: Handbook of micrometeorology. Springer, Netherlands, pp 181–208Google Scholar
- Forster P et al (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Solomon S et al (eds) chap. 2In Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp 131–234Google Scholar
- Goodrich JP, Campbell DI, Roulet NT, Clearwater MJ, Schipper LA (2015) Overriding control of methane flux temporal variability by water table dynamics in a southern hemisphere, raised bog. Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences 120(5):819–831. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JG002844. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Stocker et al (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, p 1535Google Scholar
- Kim J, Verma SB, Billesbach DP, Clement RJ (1998) Diel variation in methane emission from a midlatitude prairie wetland: significance of convective throughflow in Phragmites Australis. Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres 103(D21):28029–28039. https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD02441 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kip N, van Winden JF, Pan Y, Bodrossy L, Reichart GJ, Smolders AJP et al. (2010): Global prevalence of methane oxidation by symbiotic bacteria in peat-moss ecosystems. Nature Geoscience 3 (9), S. 617–621. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo939.
- Kljun N, Calanca P, Rotach MW, Schmid HP (2004) A simple parameterisation for flux footprint predictions. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 112(3):503–523. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BOUN.0000030653.71031.96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koebsch F, Jurasinski G, Koch M, Hofmann J, Glatzel S (2015) Controls for multi-scale temporal variation in ecosystem methane exchange during the growing season of a permanently inundated fen. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 204:94–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.02.002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lupascu M, Wadham JL, Hornibrook ERC, Pancost RD (2012) Temperature sensitivity of methane production in the permafrost active layer at Stordalen, Sweden: a comparison with non-permafrost northern wetlands. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 44(4):469–482. https://doi.org/10.1657/1938-4246-44.4.469. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Melton JR, Wania R, Hodson EL, Poulter B, Ringeval B, Spahni R. et al. (2013) Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling. Conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP). Biogeosciences 10 (2), S. 753–788. doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-753-2013
- Milberg P, Törnqvist L, Westerberg L, Bastviken D (2017) Temporal variations in methane emissions from emergent aquatic macrophytes in two boreonemoral lakes. AoB PLANTS. https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plx029
- Myhre G, Shindell D, Bréon FM, Collins W et al (2013) Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. In: Stocker TF et al (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and New York, pp 659–740Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing http://www.R-project.org.
- Rigby M, Prinn RG, Fraser PJ et al (2008) Renewed growth of atmospheric methane. Geophysical Research Letters 35(22). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036037.
- Schütz H, Holzapfel-Pschorn A, Conrad R, Rennenberg H, Seiler W (1989) A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on methane emission rates from an Italian rice paddy. Journal of Geophysical Research 94(D13):16405. https://doi.org/10.1029/JD094iD13p16405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tseng K-H, Tsai J-L, Alagesan A et al (2010) Determination of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes during the rice maturity period in Taiwan by combining profile and eddy covariance measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150(6):852–859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.04.007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walter KM, Zimov SA, Chanton JP, Verbyla D, Chapin FS3 (2006) Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming. Nature 443(7107): 71–75. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05040.
- Wood SN (2006) Generalized additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Yang WB, Yuan CS, Tong C, Yang P, Yang L, Huang BQ (2017) Diurnal variation of CO2, CH4, and N2O emission fluxes continously monitored in-situ in three environmental habitats in a subtropical estuarine wetland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 119(1):289–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.005. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zeikus JG, Winfrey MR (1976) Temperature limitation of methanogenesis in aquatic sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 31.1(1976):99–107Google Scholar