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Wetlands

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 525–543 | Cite as

CO2 Exchange in an Alpine Swamp Meadow on the Central Tibetan Plateau

  • Ben Niu
  • Yongtao HeEmail author
  • Xianzhou Zhang
  • Mingyuan Du
  • Peili Shi
  • Wei Sun
  • Leiming Zhang
Original Research

Abstract

Alpine wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau holds the highest organic carbon density of plateau ecosystems and is among the most sensitive areas to climate change. Understanding CO2 exchange and its environmental forces in this specific ecosystem can benefit constraints of carbon budgets from site to global scale under future climate change. Here we investigated CO2 flux measurements from 2009 to 2013 in a wide-distributed alpine wetland, Kobresia littledalei-Blysmus sinocompressus swamp meadow, by eddy covariance (EC) on the central Tibetan Plateau. Results showed diurnal variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was affected by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and this alpine swamp meadow had a high maximum ecosystem photosynthesis rate (Amax) with 32.96 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Nighttime ecosystem respiration (Re) rates were well associated with temperature, and average annual temperature sensitivity of Re (Q10) was 3.2. Both temperature and relative humidity (RH) played key roles in regulations of seasonal NEE, and their interactive effect was only significant in GS, especially when soil temperature at 10 cm was above 6.3 °C. Our results suggested this alpine swamp meadow was a stable CO2 sink with an annual accumulation of −161.85 ± 28.02 g C m−2. However, response of annual Re was more sensitive than GPP to change of temperature and length of growing season (LOG), which implied that future climate warming likely to weaken the CO2 sink of this alpine swamp meadow.

Keywords

Alpine swamp meadow Eddy covariance Net ecosystem CO2 exchange Tibetan plateau 

Abbreviations

For CO2 flux observations

EC

Eddy covariance

NEE

Net ecosystem CO2 exchange

GPP

Gross primary productivity

Re

Ecosystem respiration

For climate factors

PAR

Photosynthetically active radiation

Ta

Air temperature

RHa

Air relative humidity

PPT

Precipitation

Ts

Soil temperature

Rn

Net radiation

For biotic factors

DW

Dry weight

AGB

Above-ground biomass

NDVI

Normalized difference vegetation index

NG

Non-growing season

NPG

Previous non-growing season

NLG

Later non-growing season

GS

Growing season

BG

Bud-growing stage

RG

Rapid-growing stage

PG

Peak-growing stage

SG

Senescent stage

LOG

Growing season length

For other parameters

DOY

Day of the year

α

Apparent quantum yield

Amax

Maximum ecosystem photosynthesis rate

Q10

Temperature sensitivity of Re

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the editors and reviewers for their insightful and valuable comments. The authors are grateful to Sang Bu and other members of the Lhasa Station for Tibetan Plateau Ecological Research, the Chinese Academy of Sciences for their kind assistances with field work. And thanks a lot to Dr. Feng Yunfei, Fu Gang and Wu Jianshaung for their instructive opinions for the improvements of this manuscript. This work was supported by the Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB03030401) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (40603024; 41171044).

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Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ben Niu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yongtao He
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Xianzhou Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mingyuan Du
    • 4
  • Peili Shi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wei Sun
    • 1
  • Leiming Zhang
    • 5
  1. 1.Lhasa Plateau Ecosystem Research Station, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Institute for Agro-Environmental SciencesNational Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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