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Le complexe d’espèces Anopheles gambiae et le gène de résistance Kdr en périphérie de Douala, Cameroun

  • P. Ntonga Akono
  • A. Mbouangoro
  • A. Mbida Mbida
  • C. Ndo
  • M. F. Peka Nsangou
  • S. Kekeunou
Entomologie Médicale / Medical Entomology
  • 49 Downloads

Résumé

L’étude a été menée en mai et juin 2015 dans deux quartiers péri-urbains de la ville de Douala, Yassa (industrialisé) et Logbessou (non industrialisé), afin d’étudier la distribution spatiale des membres du complexe Anopheles gambiae, de déterminer leur statut de résistance et de rechercher la présence et la distribution de la mutation Kdr. Les moustiques ont été collectés au stade larvaire par la méthode du « dipping », puis élevés jusqu’au stade adulte. La sensibilité des populations adultes d’An. gambiae s.l. aux DDT et pyréthrinoïdes a été évaluée selon le protocole recommandé par l’OMS. Les moustiques issus des tests ont été identifiés par la PCR SINE. Seuls les survivants aux tests ont été utilisés pour la recherche de la mutation Kdr par PCR. Dans les localités étudiées, le complexe gambiae était composé d’An. coluzzii et An. gambiae vivant en sympatrie dans leurs gites de ponte avec une prédominance d’An. gambiae à Logbessou (88 %) et d’An. coluzzii à Yassa (68 %). Les tests à la deltaméthrine, perméthrine et DDT ont révélé des taux de mortalité inférieurs à 90 % quelle que soit la localité de provenance des anophèles. La PCR de diagnostic de la mutation Kdr a montré que plus de 95 % des survivants en étaient porteurs dans les deux sites, avec les fréquences de l’allèle résistant variant de 0,96 à 1,0 chez An. gambiae et 0,89 à 0,96 chez An. coluzzii. La forte résistance d’An. coluzzii et d’An. gambiae aux insecticides requiert une mise au point de nouvelles molécules insecticides.

Mots clés

Anopheles coluzzii An. gambiae DDT Perméthrine Deltaméthrine Insecticides Mutation Kdr Kisumu Logbessou Yassa Douala Cameroun Afrique intertropicale 

The Anopheles gambiae species complex and Kdr resistance gene at the periphery of Douala, Cameroon

Abstract

This study was conducted from May to June 2015 in Yassa (industrialized area) and Logbessou (non-industrialized area), two peri-urban areas of the city of Douala, Cameroon with the aim of an assessment of the spatial distribution of the gambiae complex, the determination of their resistance to insecticides and the distribution of the Kdr mutation. Mosquito larvae were collected by the dipping method and nursed to adult stage. The sensitivity of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations to DDT and pyrethroids was assessed following WHO protocol. All tested mosquitoes were identified by PCR SINE. Only survivors were used to search for the Kdr mutation. In both areas, the gambiae complex included An. coluzzii and An. gambiae sympatric in their breeding sites. However, An. gambiae was predominant in Logbessou (88%) and An. coluzzii in Yassa (68%). Tests with deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT revealed mortality rates below 90% regardless of the area of origin of the mosquitoes. PCR diagnosis of Kdr mutation showed that over 95% of survivors harbored the Kdr gene in both sites, with resistant allele frequencies ranging from 0.96 to 1.0 in An. gambiae and from 0.89 to 0.96 in An. coluzzii. The strong resistance of An. coluzzii and This study was conducted from May to June 2015 in Yassa (industrialized area) and Logbessou (nonindustrialized area), two peri-urban areas of the city of Douala, Cameroon with the aim of an assessment of the spatial distribution of the gambiae complex, the determination of their resistance to insecticides and the distribution of the Kdr mutation. Mosquito larvae were collected by the dipping method and nursed to adult stage. The sensitivity of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations to DDT and pyrethroids was assessed following WHO protocol. All tested mosquitoes were identified by PCR SINE. Only survivors were used to search for the Kdr mutation. In both areas, the gambiae complex included An. coluzzii and An. gambiae sympatric in their breeding sites. However, An. gambiae was predominant in Logbessou (88%) and An. coluzzii in Yassa (68%). Tests with deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT revealed mortality rates below 90% regardless of the area of origin of the mosquitoes. PCR diagnosis of Kdr mutation showed that over 95% of survivors harbored the Kdr gene in both sites, with resistant allele frequencies ranging from 0.96 to 1.0 in An. gambiae and from 0.89 to 0.96 in An. coluzzii. The strong resistance of An. coluzzii and This study was conducted from May to June 2015 in Yassa (industrialized area) and Logbessou (nonindustrialized area), two peri-urban areas of the city of Douala, Cameroon with the aim of an assessment of the spatial distribution of the gambiae complex, the determination of their resistance to insecticides and the distribution of the Kdr mutation. Mosquito larvae were collected by the dipping method and nursed to adult stage. The sensitivity of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations to DDT and pyrethroids was assessed following WHO protocol. All tested mosquitoes were identified by PCR SINE. Only survivors were used to search for the Kdr mutation. In both areas, the gambiae complex included An. coluzzii and An. gambiae sympatric in their breeding sites. However, An. gambiae was predominant in Logbessou (88%) and An. coluzzii in Yassa (68%). Tests with deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT revealed mortality rates below 90% regardless of the area of origin of the mosquitoes. PCR diagnosis of Kdr mutation showed that over 95% of survivors harbored the Kdr gene in both sites, with resistant allele frequencies ranging from 0.96 to 1.0 in An. gambiae and from 0.89 to 0.96 in An. coluzzii. The strong resistance of An. coluzzii and An. gambiae to insecticides highlights the need for developing new mosquito insecticides.

Keywords

Anopheles coluzzii An. gambiae Insecticides Kdr mutation Kisumu Logbessou Yassa Douala Sub-Saharan Africa 

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Copyright information

© Lavoisier 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Ntonga Akono
    • 1
  • A. Mbouangoro
    • 2
  • A. Mbida Mbida
    • 1
  • C. Ndo
    • 3
  • M. F. Peka Nsangou
    • 2
  • S. Kekeunou
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratoire de biologie et physiologie animale, Département de biologie animale, Faculté des sciencesUniversité de DoualaDoualaCameroun
  2. 2.Laboratoire d’écologie et de parasitologie, Département de biologie et physiologie animale, Faculté des sciencesUniversité de Yaounde IYaoundéCameroun
  3. 3.Organisation de coordination pour la lutte contre les endémies en Afrique CentraleYaoundéCameroun
  4. 4.Laboratoire de zoologie, Département de biologie et physiologie animale, Faculté des sciencesUniversité de Yaoundé IYaoundéCameroun

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