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Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique

, Volume 105, Issue 4, pp 251–255 | Cite as

Quand certains flavivirus remettent en cause nos certitudes

  • C. Chastel
Virologie / Virology

Résumé

Au cours des deux dernières décennies, on a assisté à l’émergence brutale d’un certain nombre de flavivirus transmis par des moustiques, principalement d’origine africaine, envahissant des régions géographiques où ils n’avaient jamais été actifs. Ce fut le cas pour le virus de l’encéphalite japonaise (JEV) qui, à partir de 1995, a gagné le Nord-Est de l’Australie et, surtout, du virus West Nile (WNV) qui a colonisé tout le continent américain à partir de 1999. Puis, dès 2001, le virus Usutu (USUV) a infecté une grande partie de l’Europe occidentale et le virus Zika (ZIKV) a provoqué une sérieuse épidémie en Micronésie (2007). Enfin, en 2010, le virus Tembusu (TMUV) a ravagé des élevages de canards en Chine, tandis que le virus Bagaza, après s’être manifesté au Kerala, en Inde, par des cas d’encéphalites humaines, a infecté le Sud de l’Espagne. Des pouvoirs pathogènes nouveaux ont été observés chez l’Homme et chez l’animal, en même temps que des voies inhabituelles de contamination étaient décrites et que ces virus infectaient des hôtes vertébrés nouveaux et de nouvelles espèces de moustiques. Les causes de cette évolution inattendue restent obscures.

Mots clés

flavivirus transmis par des moustiques Invasion de nouvelles régions Pouvoirs pathogènes nouveaux Voies inhabituelles de contamination 

When some Flaviviruses are throwing our certainties

Abstract

During the past two decades, a number of mosquito-borne flaviviruses, mainly of African origin, have invaded new geographical areas where they have never been active. This was the case for the Japanese encephalitis virus which reached the northeastern part of Australia (1995) and, above all, for the West Nile virus which, since 1999, entirely colonized the American continent. Then, the Usutu virus invaded a large part of the Western Europe (2001) while the Zika virus caused a large epidemic in an island of Micronesia (2007). Finally, in 2010, the Tembusu virus devastated many duck farms in China while the Bagaza virus, after having provoked human encephalitis in India, reached the southern part of Spain. In the affected areas, new pathogenic outcomes were observed in humans and animals while new vertebrate hosts and mosquito species were infected. Moreover, unusual ways of contamination were described. The origins of this unprecedented evolution remain to be clarified.

Keywords

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses Invasion of new areas New pathogenic outcomes Unusual ways of contamination 

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Copyright information

© Springer Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BrestFrance

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