Skip to main content
Log in

A detailed investigation of Jutana Formation for depositional setting in Indus Basin, Pakistan

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Carbonates and Evaporites Aims and scope Submit manuscript

A Correction to this article was published on 12 April 2024

This article has been updated

Abstract

The origin and depositional setting of dolomites remain a complex and debated topic. In the Indus Basin Pakistan, the dolomites in Jutana Formation form a thick sequence within the Cambrian stratigraphy. The current study investigates the detailed depositional setting as well as the mineralogical composition of dolomites in the Jutana Formation to provide insight into their origin. The study focuses on integrating the microfacies and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with X-ray diffraction (XRD) data along with Wireline logs of Jutana Formation in Khewra Gorge, Eastern Salt Range. Based on field and petrographic observations, four microfacies were identified including (a) siliciclastic algal laminated dolomitic breccia (MJD-1), (b) burrowed sandy ferroan dolomicrite (MJD-2), (c) in-situ medium-coarse grained dolomicrite-dolosparite (MJD-3), (d) fine grained micaceous dolosparite (MJD-4). The microfacies analysis reveals that the deposition of the Jutana Formation is primary on carbonate platform in peritidal environments, ranging from supratidal to subtidal. Digenesis has obliterated most of the primary depositional features, making the interpretation of the original depositional setting challenging. The XRD analysis suggests that these dolomites are nearly stoichiometric and less ordered, indicating an early diagenetic setting, further supported by the presence of anhydrite seen under the SEM. The original depositional setting on the carbonate platform is also supported by cross plot graph wireline logs.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

No datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

Change history

References

  • Ahmad N, Ahsan N, Sameeni SJ et al (2013) Sedimentology of the early Middle Cambrian Jutana formation of Khewra area, Eastern Salt Range, District Chakwal, Pakistan. Sci Int 25

  • Baccelle L, Bosellini A (1965) Diagrammi per la stima visiva della composizione percentuale nelle roccē sedimentarie. Università degli studi di Ferrara

  • Desheng Y (1987) Bird’s-eye structures in carbonate rocks and their environmental significance. AAPG (Am Assoc Pet Geol) bull;(United States) 71

  • Friedman GM, Sanders JE (1967) Origin and occurrence of dolostones. Developments in sedimentology. Elsevier, pp 267–348

  • Gee ER (1945) The age of the Saline Series of the Punjab and of Kohat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science India 14:269–310

  • Given RK, Wilkinson BH (1987) Dolomite abundance and stratigraphic age; constraints on rates and mechanisms of phanerozoic dolostone formation. J Sediment Res 57:1068–1078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith JR, Heard HC (1961) Subsolidus phase relations in the system CaCO3-MgCO3. J Geol 69:45–74

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gregg JM, Bish DL, Kaczmarek SE, Machel HG (2015) Mineralogy, nucleation and growth of dolomite in the laboratory and sedimentary environment: a review. Sedimentology 62:1749–1769

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haq BU, Boersma A (1998) Introduction to marine micropaleontology. Elsevier

  • Hardie LA (1987) Dolomitization; a critical view of some current views. J Sediment Res 57:166–183

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kadri IB (1995) Petroleum geology of Pakistan. Pakistan Petroleum Limited

  • Kazmi AH, Jan MQ (1997) Geology and tectonics of Pakistan. (No Title)

  • Kazmi A, Rana R (1982) Tectonic map of Pakistan. Scale 1:2000000, first edition

  • Khan S, Shah MM (2019) Multiphase dolomitization in the Jutana formation (Cambrian), Salt Range (Pakistan): evidences from field observations, microscopic studies and isotopic analysis. Geologica Acta 17:1–18

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khan MA, Khan MJ, Alizai SAK (1977) Stratigraphy and petrography of the Jutana Dolomite, Khewra Gorge Khewra, Jehlum District; Punjab: Pakistan. Geol Bull Univ Peshawar 9:43–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Land LS (1985) The origin of massive dolomite. J Geol Educ 33:112–125

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lippmann F, Lippmann F (1973) Crystal chemistry of sedimentary carbonate minerals. Springer

  • Loucks RG, Longman MW (1982) Lower cretaceous Ferry Lake Anhydrite. product of shallow-subtidal deposition, Fairway field, east Texas

    Google Scholar 

  • Lumsden DN, Chimahusky JS (1980) Relationship between dolomite nonstoichiometry and carbonate facies parameters

  • Miall AD (2004) Empiricism and model building in stratigraphy: the historical roots of present-day practices. Stratigraphy 1:3–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morrow DW (1982) Diagenesis 1. Dolomite-Part 1: the chemistry of dolomitization and dolomite precipitation. Geosci Can 9:5–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Pickett GR (1977) Recognition of Environments and Carbonate Rock Type Identification in Formation Evaluation Manual Unit II, section exploration wells: Oil and Gas Consultants International Inc. International, Inc 4–25

  • Pina CM, Pimentel C, Crespo Á (2020) Dolomite cation order in the geological record. Chem Geol 547:119667

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Qiu X, Wang H, Yao Y, Duan Y (2017) High salinity facilitates dolomite precipitation mediated by Haloferax volcanii DS52. Earth Planet Sci Lett 472:197–205

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MU, Ali F, Hayat M (2016) Diagenetic setting, Dolomitization and Reservoir characterization of late cretaceous Kawagarh formation, Khanpur Dam section, Hazara, Pakistan. Int J Economic Environ Geol 7:64–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahman MU, Ali F, Faisal S et al (2017) The impact of Diagenesis and Dolomitization on the Reservoir Potential of Middle Jurassic Samana Suk formation from Khanpur Dam Section Hazara Basin, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Int J Econ Environ Geol Vol 8:40–54

    Google Scholar 

  • Schindewolf OH, Seilacher D (1955) in der Salt Range (Pakistan). Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse 255

  • Scholle PA, Ulmer-Scholle DS (2003) A color guide to the petrography of carbonate rocks: grains, textures, porosity, diagenesis, AAPG Memoir 77. AAPG

  • Selley RC, Cocks LRM, Plimer IR (2005) Encyclopedia of geology. Elsevier Academic

  • Shah SMI (1977) Stratigraphy of Pakistan

  • Shah MM, Ahmed W, Ahsan N, Lisa M (2016) Fault-controlled, bedding-parallel dolomite in the middle jurassic samana suk formation in Margalla Hill Ranges, Khanpur area (North Pakistan): petrography, geochemistry, and petrophysical characteristics. Arab J Geosci 9:1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shinn EA (1983) Tidal flat environment. Carbonate depositional environments. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Tulsa, OK, pp 171–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Sibley DF, Gregg JM (1987) Classification of dolomite rock textures. J Sediment Res 57:967–975

    Google Scholar 

  • Tucker ME (2003) Sedimentary Rocks in the Field THIRD EDITION

  • Vasconcelos C, McKenzie JA, Bernasconi S et al (1995) Microbial mediation as a possible mechanism for natural dolomite formation at low temperatures. Nature 377:220–222

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Warren J (2000) Dolomite: occurrence, evolution and economically important associations. Earth Sci Rev 52:1–81

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wright VP, Tucker ME (1990) Carbonate sedimentology. Blackwell scientific publications

  • Wu X (1982) Storm-generated depositional types and associated trace fossils in Lower Carboniferous shallow-marine carbonates of three cliffs Bay and Ogmore-by-Sea, South Wales. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 39:187–202

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to University of Peshawar for assistance during field work. The authors are also show deep gratitude to the Institute for Advanced Marine Research, CUG Guangzhou for interpretation and laboratory analysis.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

M.I, H.R, S.S.H proposed the research work and performed the fieldwork, M.R, and A.K helped the field party in the analysis and interpretations. M.I, H.R, S.S.H prepared the initial draft of the manuscript which is finalized by M.R. All the research work was under the supervision of S.K.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maqsood Ur Rahman.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Conflict of interest

There is no financial or ethical conflict of interest among the authors or with any third party.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The original online version of this article was revised due to correction in affiliation.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ibrar, M., Rehman, H.U., Khan, S. et al. A detailed investigation of Jutana Formation for depositional setting in Indus Basin, Pakistan. Carbonates Evaporites 39, 24 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-024-00951-8

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-024-00951-8

Keywords

Navigation