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Biostratigraphy, microfacies, paleoenvironment, and paleoecological study of the Oligocene (Late Rupelian–Early Chattian) Baba Formation, Kirkuk area, Northeastern Iraq

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Abstract

The age and evolution of paleoenvironmental conditions in the Oligocene (Baba Formation) from the Bai-Hassan Well-4 section were studied from the distribution of Large Benthic Foraminifera (LBF), microfacies, and paleoecology. We identified 30 species from 21 genera of Large Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) in addition to corals and algae with remains of mollusca and echinoid spines, belonging to two assemblage zones which are Nummulites vascus, Nummulites fichteli Assemblage Zone and Lepidocyclina (Eulephidina) dilatataNummulites vascus, Nummulites fichteli Assemblage Zone. The Baba Formation spans Late Rupelian-to-Early Chattian age in the studied section. Bai-Hassan Well-4 section was subdivided into three carbonate microfacies from the lower to the upper part: fine-to-very coarse bioclastic larger foraminiferal wackestone–packstone (MF1), fine-to-very coarse bioclastic larger foraminiferal packstone (MF2), and fine-to-coarse bioclastic larger foraminiferal packstone–grainstone (MF3). The main depositional environment of the Baba Formation from the lower to the upper art of the studied section is represented by outer ramp starting from open shelf lagoon, and it was deposited from subtropical to a tropical environment from, the lower part to the middle and the upper part of the studied section, with mesotrophic-to- oligotrophic conditions, open marine to shallow and restricted environments with normal to higher water salinity (34–50 ‰), and mesophotic-to-oligophotic conditions of soft-to-hard sediments.

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Ghafor, I.M., Najaflo, S. Biostratigraphy, microfacies, paleoenvironment, and paleoecological study of the Oligocene (Late Rupelian–Early Chattian) Baba Formation, Kirkuk area, Northeastern Iraq. Carbonates Evaporites 37, 7 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-021-00753-2

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