Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 63–74 | Cite as

Clay minerals from rock salt of Salt Range Formation (Late Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian, Pakistan)

  • Iaroslava Iaremchuk
  • Mohammad Tariq
  • Sophiya Hryniv
  • Serhiy Vovnyuk
  • Fanwei Meng
Original Article

Abstract

The clay minerals of Late Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian rock salt of Salt Range Formation of Pakistan have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dispersive X-ray spectrometry, complex thermal and chemical analyses. The clay minerals association of pelitic fraction of water-insoluble residue of these deposits consists of corrensite, chlorite and illite with the admixture of unordered mixed-layered chlorite–corrensite and chlorite–smectite; in some samples, the admixture of smectite occurs. The expandable layers in corrensite are determined as smectite. In studied samples the chlorite, corrensite and mixed-layered species are presented by trioctahedral Mg-rich type and illite is dioctahedral and enriched by Fe; this association of clay minerals is typical for evaporite deposits. Transformation of clay minerals proceeded under the impact of several factors of different direction and intensity. In evaporite basin, the elevated salinity of brines reinforces the processes of clay minerals structure ordering causing disappearance of mixed-layered minerals and thus decreasing the number of clay mineral species; in the brines originated from SO4-rich seawater, the clay mineral associations are richer comparing to Ca-rich brines. Local factors—volcanic ash input, elevated content of organic matter slow down the transformation processes thus also increasing the number of clay mineral species. We explain the unexpectedly rich clay mineral association (as for the halite stage of evaporation) in studied rocks by the strong effect of local factors.

Keywords

Neoproterozoic Clay minerals XRD Rock salt Salt Range Formation Pakistan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (973 Program, No 2011CB403007) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No 40703018; 41173051; 41172131).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iaroslava Iaremchuk
    • 1
  • Mohammad Tariq
    • 2
  • Sophiya Hryniv
    • 1
  • Serhiy Vovnyuk
    • 1
  • Fanwei Meng
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of UkraineLvivUkraine
  2. 2.Department of Petroleum and Gas EngineeringBaluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management SciencesQuettaPakistan
  3. 3.Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory for Paleobiology and StratigraphyNanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology Chinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina

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