Decoding Tropospheric Ozone in Hangzhou, China: from Precursors to Sources

  • Rui FengEmail author
  • Kun LuoEmail author
  • Jian-ren Fan
Original Article


For the purpose of providing a tropospheric O3 control strategy for Hangzhou, China, we investigate the influential factors of it using observed data and the WRF-CMAQ model. The result indicates that temperature and relative humidity are the dominant factors and Hangzhou belongs to VOC-limited regime. Long-range/regional transport accounts for 15.4% and 17.4% of O3 in autumn and winter, respectively, showing a north-to-south transport pattern while 14.5% and 19.7% of O3 in spring and summer, respectively, showing a southwest-to-northeast transport pattern. Annual contribution of local industry to local O3 was 59.2%, followed by residence, traffic and agriculture. Ethylene, m/p-xylene, toluene and propylene are the main O3 producers. Therefore, controlling VOCs species that possess the highest ozone formation potentials, afforestation, implementing artificial precipitation and shutdown local industry are the most effective ways to mitigate ozone pollution in Hangzhou.


O3-VOC-NOx Ozone formation potentials WRF-CMAQ Regional/long-range transport Local sector contribution 



This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51390493 and 51476144).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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© Korean Meteorological Society and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy UtilizationZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.China National Building Materials Group CorporationChina New Building Materials Design and Research InstituteHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of chemical and biological engineeringUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  4. 4.College of biological sciencesUniversity of Minnesota-Twin citiesMinneapolisUSA

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