Can the Southern annular mode influence the Korean summer monsoon rainfall?

Abstract

We demonstrate that a large-scale longitudinally symmetric global phenomenon in the Southern Hemisphere sub-polar region can transmit its influence over a remote local region of the Northern Hemisphere traveling more than 100° of latitudes (from ~70°S to ~40°N). This is illustrated by examining the relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Korean Monsoon Rainfall (KMR) based on the data period 1983-2013. Results reveal that the May-June SAM (MJSAM) has a significant in-phase relationship with the subsequent KMR. A positive MJSAM is favorable for the summer monsoon rainfall over the Korean peninsula. The impact is relayed through the central Pacific Ocean. When a negative phase of MJSAM occurs, it gives rise to an anomalous meridional circulation in a longitudinally locked air-sea coupled system over the central Pacific that propagates from sub-polar to equatorial latitudes and is associated with the central Pacific warming. The ascending motion over the central Pacific descends over the Korean peninsula during peak-boreal summer resulting in weakening of monsoon rainfall. The opposite features prevail during a positive phase of SAM. Thus, the extreme modes of MJSAM could possibly serve as a predictor for ensuing Korean summer monsoon rainfall.

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Correspondence to Ramesh Kripalani.

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Prabhu, A., Kripalani, R., Oh, J. et al. Can the Southern annular mode influence the Korean summer monsoon rainfall?. Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 53, 217–228 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-017-0029-0

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Key words

  • Southern annular mode
  • Central Pacific warming
  • Korean monsoon rainfall