This review provides a summary on the recent major advances in research of ENSO changes and the associated impacts on Asian-Pacific climate. Achievements in the following topics are summarized: 1) the asymmetry between El Niño and La Niña; 2) the different features of central Pacific (CP) El Niño and eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño; 3) the change of ENSO in a warming world, including analysis of pre-industrial control simulation, historical simulation and climate projections of coupled climate system model; 4) Impact of EP ENSO on warm-pool air-sea interaction and East Asianwestern North Pacific summer monsoon; 5) Impacts of CP ENSO on Asian-Pacific climate, with focus on East Asian seasonal precipitation and tropical cyclones in the western Pacific. Research results published in the recent 5 years are the major sources for this review. Based on the review of the current progresses, some challenging issues needed to be investigated in the future are highlighted.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alexander, M., I. Blade, M. Newman, J. Lanzante, N. Lau, and J. Scott, 2002: The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air-sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate, 15, 2205–2231.
An, S.-I., 2003: Conditional maximum covariance analysis and its application to the tropical Indian Ocean SST and surface wind stress anomalies. J. Climate, 16, 2932–2938.
An, S.-I., 2004: A dynamic link between the basin-scale and zonal modes in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Theor. Appl. Climatol, 78, 203–215.
An, S.-I., 2008: Interannual variations of the tropical ocean instability wave and ENSO. J. Climate, 21, 3680–3686.
An, S.-I., 2009: A review of interdecadal changes in the nonlinearity of the El Niño- Southern Oscillation. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97, 29–40, 2009.
An, S.-I., and B. Wang, 2000: Interdecadal change of the structure of the ENSO mode and its impact on the ENSO frequency. J. Climate, 13, 122044–2055.
An, S.-I., and F.-F. Jin, 2004: Nonlinearity and asymmetry of ENSO. J. Climate, 17, 2399–2412.
Annamalai, H., P. Liu, and S. P. Xie, 2005a: Southwest Indian Ocean SST variability: Its local effect and remote influence on Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 18, 4150–4167.
Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, H. Weng, and T. Yamagata, 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11007, doi:10.1029/2006JC003798.
Ashok, K., S. Iizuka, S. A. Rao, N. H. Saji, and W.-J. Lee, 2009: Processes and boreal summer impacts of the 2004 El Niño Modoki: An AGCM study. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L04703, doi:10.1029/2008GL036313.
Bellenger, H., E. Guilyardi, J. Leloup, M. Lengaigne, and J. Vialard, 2013: ENSO representation in climate models: from CMIP3 to CMIP5. Clim. Dynam, 42, 1999–2018, doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1783-z.
Burgers, G., and D. B. Stephenson, 1999: The “normality” of El Niño. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1027–1030.
Chang, C. P., Y. S. Zhang, and T. Li, 2000: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the subtropical ridge. J. Climate, 13, 4310–4325.
Chen, G., 2011: How does shifting Pacific Ocean warming modulate on tropical cyclone frequency over the SCS?. J. Climate, 24, 4695–4700, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4140.1.
Chen, G., and C.-Y. Tam, 2010: Different impacts of two kinds of Pacific Ocean warming on tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, doi:10.1029/2009GL041708.
Chen, W., J. Feng, and R. Wu, 2013: Roles of ENSO and PDO in the link of the East Asian winter monsoon to the following summer monsoon. J. Climate, 26, 622–635.
Choi, J., S.-I. An, and S.-W. Yeh, 2012: Decadal amplitude modulation of two types of ENSO and its relationship with the mean state. Clim. Dynam., 38, 2631–2644, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1186-y.
Choi, J., B. Dewitte, and W. W. Hsieh, 2009: Interactive feedback between the tropical Pacic decadal oscillation and ENSO in a coupled general circulation model. J. Climate, 22, 6597–6611.
Choi, J., J.-S. Kug, and S.-W. Yeh, 2011: The role of mean state on changes in El Niño’s avor. Clim. Dynam., 37, 1205–1215, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0912-1.
Choi, K.-Y., G. A. Vecchi, and A. T. Wittenberg, 2013: ENSO transition, duration, and amplitude asymmetries: Role of the nonlinear wind stress coupling in a conceptual model. J. Climate, 26, 9462–9476.
Chou, C., J. Tu, and J. Yu, 2003: Interannual variability of the western North Pacific summer monsoon: Differences between ENSO and Non-ENSO Years. J. Climate, 16, 2275–2287.
Chou, C., L. -F. Huang, J. -Y. Tu, L. Tseng, and Y. -C. Hsueh, 2009: El Niño impacts on precipitation in the western North Pacific-East Asian sector. J. Climate, 22, 2039–2059.
Christensen, J. H., and Coauthors, 2013a: Climate phenomena and their relevance for future regional climate change. In: Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Christensen, J. H., and Coauthors, 2013b: Climate phenomena and their relevance for future regional climate change supplementary material. In: Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Available from www.climatechange2013.org and www.ipcc.ch.
Chung, P. H., and T. Li, 2013: Interdecadal Relationship between the Mean State and El Niño Types. J. Climate, 26, 361–379.
Duan, W., H. Xu, and M. Mu, 2008: Decisive role of nonlinear temperature advection in El Niño and La Niña amplitude asymmetry. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C01014, doi:10.1029/2006JC003974.
Eisenman, I., L. S. Yu, and E. Tziperman, 2005: Westerly wind bursts: ENSO’s tail rather than the dog?. J. Climate, 18, 5224–5238.
Feng, J., and J. P. Li, 2011: Influence of El Niño Modoki on spring rainfall over SC. J. Geophys., Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2010JD015160.
Feng, J., L. Wang, W. Chen, S. Fong, and K. Leong, 2010: Different impacts of two types of Pacific Ocean warming on Southeast Asian rainfall during boreal winter. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 115.
Frauen, C., and D. Dommenget, 2010: El Niño and La Niña amplitude asym- metry caused by atmospheric feedbacks. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18801, doi:10.1029/2010GL044444.
Fu, Congbin, H. F. Diaz, and J. O. Fletcher, 1986: Characteristics of the response of sea surface temperature in the central pacific associated with warm episodes of the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 1716–1739.
He, C., and T. Zhou, 2014: The two interannual variability modes of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High simulated by 28 CMIP5-AMIP models. Clim. Dynam., doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2068-x.Geophys.
He, C., L. Zou, and L. Zhang, 2013: Two interannual variability modes of the Northwestern Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone in boreal summer. Sci. China Earth Sci., 56, 1254–1265.
Hoerling, M. P., A. Kumar, and M. Zhong, 1997: El Niño, La Niña, and the nonlinearity of their teleconnections. J. Climate, 10, 1769–1786.
Hong, C.-C., T. Li, L. Ho, and Y.-C. Chen, 2010: Asymmetry of the Indian Ocean basinwide SST anomalies: Roles of ENSO and IOD. J. Climate, 23, 3563–3576.
Hong, C.-C., Y.-H. Li, T. Li, and M.-Y. Lee, 2011: Impacts of central Pacific and eastern Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone tracks over the western North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38.
Hsu, H. H., T. Zhou, and J. Matsumoto, 2014: East Asian, Indochina and western North Pacific summer monsoon-An update. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 45–68.
Hu, Z. Z., A. Kumar, B. Jha, W. Wang, B. Huang, and B. Huang, 2012: An analysis of warm pool and cold tongue El Niños: air-sea coupling processes, global influences, and recent trends. Clim. Dynam., doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1224-9.
Huang, G., K. Hu, and S.-P. Xie, 2010: Strengtheing of tropical indian ocean teleconnection to the northwest Pacific since the mid-1970s: An atmospheric GCM study. J. Climate, 23, 5294–5304.
Huang, R. H., and Y. F. Wu, 1989: The influence of ENSO on the summer climate change in China and its mechanism. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 6, 21–32.
IPCC: Climate Change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group 1 to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Planttner, G. K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press, 2013.
Jin, F.-F., S.-I. An, A. Timmermann, and J. Zhao, 2003: Strong El Niño events and nonlinear dynamical heating. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1120, doi:10.1029/2002GL016356.
Jin, F. -F., L. Lin, A. Timmermann, and J. Zhao, 2007: Ensemble-mean dynamics of the ENSO recharge oscillator under state-dependent stochastic forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L03807, doi:10.1029/2006-GL027372.
Kang, I.-S., and J.-S. Kug, 2002: El Niño and La Niña sea surface temperature anomalies: Asymmetry characteristics associated with their wind stress anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D19), 4372, doi:10.1029/2001JD000393.
Kao, H.-Y., and J.-Y. Yu, 2009: Contrasting eastern-Pacic and central-Pacic types of ENSO. J. Climate, 22, 615–632.
Karori, M. A., J. P. Li, and F. F. Jin, 2013: The asymmetric influence of the two types of El Niño and La Niña on summer rainfall over southeast China. J. Climate, 26, 4567–4582.
Kessler, W. S., 2002: Is ENSO a cycle or a series of events?. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2125, doi:10.1029/2002GL015924.
Kim, S. T., and J.-Y. Yu, 2012: The two types of ENSO in CMIP5 models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L11704, doi:10.1029/2012GL052006.
Klein, S. A., B. J. Soden, and N. C. Lau, 1999: Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Climate, 12, 917–932.
Kug, J. S., and I. S. Kang, 2006: Interactive feedback between ENSO and the Indian Ocean. J. Climate, 19, 1784–1801.
Kug, J. S., F.-F. Jin, and S.-I. An, 2009: Two types of El Niño events: Cold tongue El Niño and warm pool El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 1499–1515.
Kug, J. S., J. Choi, S.-I. An, F.-F. Jin, and A. T. Wittenberg, 2010: Warm pool and cold tongue El Niño events as simulated by the GFDL 2.1 coupled GCM. J. Climate, 23, 1226–1239.
Larkin, N. K., and D. E. Harrison, 2002: ENSO warm (El Niño) and cold (La Niña) event life cycles: Ocean surface anomaly patterns, their symmetries, asymmetries, and implications. J. Climate, 15, 1118–1140.
Latif, M., R. Kleeman, and C. Eckert, 1997: Greenhouse warming, decadal variability, or El Niño? An attempt to understand the anomalous 1990s. J. Climate, 10, 2221–2239
Lau, N. -C., and B. Wang, 2006: Interactions between Asian monsoon and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, In “The Asian Monsoon”, Ed. B. Wang, Springer/Praxis Publishing. New York, pp. 478–512.
Li, S. L., J. Lu, G. Huang, and K. M. Hu, 2008: Tropical Indian Ocean basin warming and East Asian summer monsoon: A multiple AGCM study. J. Climate, 21, 6080–6088.
Li, T., and B. Wang, 2005: A review on the western North Pacific monsoon: synoptic-to-interannual variabilities. Terrestrial, Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 16, 285–314.
Liang Jin, X.-Q. Yang, and D.-Z. Sun, 2012: The Effect of ENSO Events on the Tropical Pacic Mean Climate: Insights from an Analytical Model. J. Climate, 25, 7590–7606.
Liu, J., B. Wang, and J. Yang, 2008: Forced and internal modes of variability of the East Asian summer monsoon. Clim. Past Discuss., 4, 645–666.
McPhaden, M. J., and X. Zhang, 2009: Asymmetry in zonal phase propagation of ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L13703, doi:10.1029/2009GL038774.
McPhaden, M. J., T. Lee, and D. McClurg, 2011: El Niño and its relationship to changing background conditions in the tropical Pacic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15709, doi:10.1029/2011GL048275.
Ohba, M., and H. Ueda, 2009: Role of nonlinear atmospheric response to SST on the asymmetric transition process of ENSO. J. Climate, 22, 177–192.
Ohba, M., and M. Watanabe, 2012: Role of the Indo-Pacific Interbasin Coupling in Predicting Asymmetric ENSO Transition and Duration. J. Climate, 25, 3321–3335.
Ohba, M., D. Nohara, and H. Ueda, 2010: Simulation of asymmetric ENSO transition in WCRP CMIP3 multimodel experiments. J. Climate, 23, 6051–6067.
Okumura, Y. M., and C. Deser, 2010: Asymmetry in the duration of El Niño and La Niña. J. Climate, 23, 5826–5843.
Okumura, Y. M., H. Ohba, and C. Deser, 2011: A proposed mechanism for asymmetric duration of El Niño and La Niña. J. Climate, 24, 3822–3829.
Perez, C. L., A. M. Moore, J. Zavaly-Garay, and R. Kleeman, 2005: A comparison of the influence of additive and multiplicative stochastic forcing on a coupled model of ENSO. J. Climate, 18, 5066–5085.
Rong, X., R. Zhang, T. Li, and J. Su, 2011: Upscale feedback of highfrequency winds to ENSO. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 894–907.
Rasmusson, E. M., and T. H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 554–584.
Singh, A., T. Delcroix, and S. Cravatte, 2011: Contrasting the flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation using sea surface salinity observations. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 116.
Song, F., and T. Zhou, 2014: Inter-annual variability of East Asian summer monsoon simulated by CMIP3 and CMIP5 AGCMs: Skill dependence on Indian Ocean-western Pacific anticyclone teleconnection. J. Climate, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00248.1.
Su, J., R. Zhang, T. Li, X. Rong, J.-S. Kug, and C.-C. Hong, 2010: Causes of the El Niño and La Niña amplitude asymmetry in the equatorial eastern Pacific. J. Climate, 23, 605–617.
Sun, F., and J.-Y. Yu, 2009: A 10-15-yr modulation cycle of ENSO intensity. J. Climate, 22, 1718–1735.
Trenberth, K. E., and L. Smith, 2006: The vertical structure of temperature in the tropics: Different flavors of El Niño. J. Climate, 19, 4956–4970.
Trenberth, K. E., and L. Smith, 2009: Variations in the three-dimensional structure of the atmospheric circulation with different flavors of El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 2978–2991.
Trenberth, K. E., and L. Smith, G. W. Branstator, D. Karoly, A. Kumar, N.-C. Lau, and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 14291–14324.
Vimont, D. J., D. S. Battisti, and A. C. Hirst, 2001: Footprinting: A seasonal connection between the tropics and mid-latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3923–3926.
Wang, B., and Z. Fan, 1999: Choice of south Asian summer monsoon indices. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 629–638.
Wang, B., and S. I. An, 2002: A mechanism for decadal changes of ENSO behavior: roles of background wind changes. Clim. Dynam., 18, 475–486, doi:10.1007/s00382-001-0189-5.
Wang, B., R. G. Wu, and X. H. Fu, 2000: Pacific-East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate?. J. Climate, 13, 1517–1536.
Wang, B., R. Wu, and T. Li, 2003: Atmosphere-warm ocean interaction and its impacts on the Asian-Australian monsoon variation. J. Climate, 16, 1195–1211.
Wang, B., B. Xiang, and J.-Y. Lee, 2013: Subtropical High predictability establishes a promising way for monsoon and tropical storm predictions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., doi:10.1073/pnas.1214626110.
Wang, C., C. Deser, J.-Y. Yu, P. DiNezio, and A. Clement, 2012: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): A review. In Coral Reefs of the Eastern Pacific, P. Glymn, D. Manzello, and I. Enochs, Eds., Springer Science Publisher.
Watanabe, M., and F. F. Jin, 2002: Role of Indian ocean warming in the development of Philippine sea anticyclone during ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett, 29, 1478, doi:10.1029/2001GL014318.
Weng, H., G. Wu, Y. Liu, S. K. Behera, and T. Yamagata, 2011: Anomalous summer climate in China influenced by the tropical Indo-Pacific Oceans. Clim. Dynam., 36, 769–782, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0658-9.
Wu, B., and T. Zhou, 2008: Oceanic origin of the interannual and interdecadal variability of the summertime western Pacific subtropical high. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13701, doi:10.1029/2008GL034584.
Wu, B., and T. Zhou, 2013: Relationships between East Asian-western North Pacific monsoon and ENSO simulated by FGOALS-s2. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30, 713–725.
Wu, B., and T. Li, 2009: Seasonally evolving dominant interannual variability modes of East Asian climate. J. Climate, 22, 2992–3005.
Wu, B., T. Li, and T. Zhou, 2010a: Asymmetry of atmospheric circulation anomalies over the Western North Pacific between El Niño and La Niña. J. Climate, 23, 4807–4822.
Wu, B., T. Li, and T. Zhou, 2010b: Relative contributions of the Indian Ocean and local SST anomalies to the maintenance of the western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone during El Niño decaying summer. J. Climate, 23, 2974–2986.
Wu, B., T. Zhou, and T. Li, 2012: Two distinct modes of tropical Indian Ocean precipitation in boreal winter and their impacts on equatorial western Pacific. J. Climate, 25, 921–938.
Wu, R., Z.-Z. Hu, and B. P. Kirtman, 2003: Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J. Climate, 16, 3742–3758.
Xiang, B., B. Wang, W. Yu, and S. Xu, 2013: How can western North Pacific subtropical high intensify from early to late summer?. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2349–2354, doi:10.1002/grl.50431.
Xiang B. Q., B. Wang, and T. Li, 2013: A new paradigm for the predominance of standing Central Pacic Warming after the late 1990s. Clim. Dynam., 41, 327–340, doi:10.1007/s00382-012—1427-8.
Xie, S.-P., K. Hu, J. Hafner, H. Tokinaga, Y. Du, G. Huang, and T. Sampe, 2009: Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo-western Pacific climate during the summer following El Niño. J. Climate, 22, 730–747.
Xue, F., and C. Z. Liu, 2007: The influence of moderate ENSO on summer rainfall in eastern China and its comparison with strong ENSO. Chinese Sci. Bull., 53, 791–800.
Xue, F., and C. Z. Liu, 2008: The influence of moderate ENSO on summer rainfall in eastern China and its comparison with strong ENSO. Chinese Sci. Bull., 53, 791–800.
Yang, J. L., Q. Y. Liu, S. P. Xie, Z. Y. Liu, and L. X. Wu, 2007: Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02708, doi:10.1029/2006GL028571.
Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug, and S.-I. An, 2014: Recent progress on two types of El Niño: observations, dynamics, and future changes. Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 69–81.
Yeh, S.-W., B. P. Kirtman, J.-S. Kug, W. Park, and M. Latif, 2011: Natural variability of the central Pacific El Niño event on multi-centennial timescales. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02704, doi:10.1029/2010GL-045886.
Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug, B. Dewitte, M.-H. Kwon, B. P. Kirtman, and F.-F. Jin, 2009: El Niño in a changing climate. Nature, 461, 511–514.
Yu, J. Y., H. Y. Kao, T. Lee, and S. T. Kim, 2011: Subsurface ocean temperature indices for Central-Pacific and Eastern-Pacific types of El Niño and La Niña events. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 103, 337–344.
Zhang, J., T. Zhou, Q. Bao, and B. Wu, 2010: The vertical structures of atmospheric temperature anomalies associated with El Niño simulated by the LASG/IAP AGCM: Sensitivity to convection schemes. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 27, doi:10.1007/s00376-010-9167-3.
Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. kimoto, 1996: Impact of El Niño on the East Asia Monsoon: A diagnostic study of the 86/87 and 91/92 events. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74, 49–62.
Zhang, R. H., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1999: A diagnostic study of the impact of El Niño on the precipitation in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 16, 229–241.
Zhang, W. J., F. F. Jin, J. P. Li, and H. L. Ren, 2011: Contrasting impacts of two-type El Niño over the western North Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89, 563–569.
Zhang, W. J., H. L. Ren, J. P. Li, and J. X. Zhao, 2012: Differences in teleconnection over the North Pacific and rainfall shift over the USA associated with two types of El Niño during boreal autumn. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90, 535–552.
Zhou T., and J. Zhang, 2011: The vertical structures of atmospheric temperature anomalies associated with two flavors of El Niño simulated by AMIP II models. J. Climate, 24, 1053–1070.
Zhou T., B. Wu, and B. Wang, 2009: How well do atmospheric general circulation models capture the leading modes of the interannual variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon?. J. Climate, 22, 1159–1173.
Zhou T., H.-H. Hsu, and J. Matsuno, 2011: Summer monsoons in East Asia, Indochina, and the western North Pacific, 43–72 pp, in The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast (2nd Edition), edited by Chih-Pei Chang et al., 2011 World Scientific Publishing Co.
Zhou T., X. Chen, L. Dong, B. Wu, M. Man, L. Zhang, R. Lin, J. Yao, F. Song, and C. Zhao, 2014: Chinese contribution to CMIP5: An overview of five chinese models’ performances. J. Meteor. Res., in Press.
Zou, L., and T. Zhou, 2011: Sensitivity of a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model to convection parameterization over western North Pacific. J. Geophy. Res., 116, D18106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015884.
Zou, L., and T. Zhou, 2012: Development and evaluation of a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model with focus on the western North Pacific summer monsoon simulation Impacts of different atmospheric components. Scince China: Earth Science, 55, 802–815, doi:10.1007/s11430-011-4281-3.
Zou, L., and T. Zhou, 2013a: Can a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model improve the simulation of the interannual variability of the Western North Pacific summer monsoon?. J. Climate, 26, 2353–2367.
Zou, L., and T. Zhou, 2013b: Simulation of the western North Pacific summer monsoon by regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model: Impacts of oceanic components. Chinese Sci. Bull., 59, 662–673, doi:10.1007/s11434-013-0104-6.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhou, T., Wu, B. & Dong, L. Advances in research of ENSO changes and the associated impacts on Asian-Pacific climate. Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 50, 405–422 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-014-0043-4
- central Pacific El Niño
- eastern Pacific El Niño
- global warming