An attempt was made to delineate the characteristics of ice nuclei (IN) over North China using the ground-based measurement data from 1963–2003. The results show that: (1) the IN concentrations increased during the period from 1963–1996, but decreased after 2000; (2) the average IN concentrations range from 1.0 to 26.3, 3.6 to 78.9, 19.2 to 627.3, and 92.9 to 5285.0 L−1 at temperature −15, −20, −25, and −30°C, with the overall average of 7.8, 20.6, 167.7, and 890.6 L−1, respectively; and (3) the number concentration of active IN increased nearly exponentially with decreasing temperature, with the slope (ranging from 0.11 to 0.42°C−1) being of a narrow range in a log-linear coordinate; the regression equations for the western central China and the eastern central China can be expressed as N(T) = 0.0396 exp (−0.317 ΔT) and N(T) = 0.1496 exp (−0.299ΔT), respectively. The present study may be useful toward applications in models for predicting IN effects on the cloud, precipitation and climate over North China.
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Yin, J., Wang, D. & Zhai, G. An evaluation of ice nuclei characteristics from the long-term measurement data over North China. Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 48, 197–204 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-012-0020-8
- Ice nuclei
- concentration variation
- parameterization of ice nuclei