An attempt was made to delineate the characteristics of ice nuclei (IN) over North China using the ground-based measurement data from 1963–2003. The results show that: (1) the IN concentrations increased during the period from 1963–1996, but decreased after 2000; (2) the average IN concentrations range from 1.0 to 26.3, 3.6 to 78.9, 19.2 to 627.3, and 92.9 to 5285.0 L−1 at temperature −15, −20, −25, and −30°C, with the overall average of 7.8, 20.6, 167.7, and 890.6 L−1, respectively; and (3) the number concentration of active IN increased nearly exponentially with decreasing temperature, with the slope (ranging from 0.11 to 0.42°C−1) being of a narrow range in a log-linear coordinate; the regression equations for the western central China and the eastern central China can be expressed as N(T) = 0.0396 exp (−0.317 ΔT) and N(T) = 0.1496 exp (−0.299ΔT), respectively. The present study may be useful toward applications in models for predicting IN effects on the cloud, precipitation and climate over North China.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Beard, K.V., 1992: Ice initiation in warm-base convective clouds: An assessment of microphysical mechanisms. Atmos. Res., 28, 125–152.
Bergeron, T., 1935: On the physics of cloud and precipitation. Proc. 5th Assembly, U. G. G. I. Lisbon, 156 pp.
Bigg, E. K., 1957: A new Technique for Counting Ice-Forming Nuclei in Aerosols. Tellus, 9, 394–400.
____, G. T. Miles, and K. J. Heffernan, 1961: Stratospheric ice nuclei. J. Meteor., 18, 804–806.
____, and _____, 1963: Stratospheric ice nucleus measurements from balloons. Tellus, 15, 162–166.
____, 1990: Long-term trends in ice nucleus concentrations. Atmos. Res., 25, 409–415.
Bundke, U., B. Nillius, R. Jaenicke, T. Wetter, H. Klein, and H. Bingemer, 2008: The fast Ice Nucleus chamber FINCH. Atmos. Res., 90, 180–186.
Choi, Y.-S., R. S. Lindzen, C.-H. Ho, and J. Kim, 2010: Space observations of cold-cloud phase change, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107, 11211–11216, doi:10.1073/pnas.1006241107.
____, C.-H. Ho, J. Kim, D.-Y. Gong, and R. J. Park, 2008: The Impact of Aerosols on the Summer Rainfall Frequency in China. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 1802–1813, doi:10.1175/2007jamc1745.1.
Cooper, W. A., 1980. A method of detecting contact ice nuclei using filter samles. Eighth International Conference on Cloud Physics, Clermont-Ferrand, France, Amer. Metero. Soc., 665–668 pp.
Cotton, W.R., G. J. Tripoli, R. M. Rauber, and E. A. Mulvihill, 1986: Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Varying Ice Crystal Nucleation Rates and Aggregation Processes on Orographic Snowfall. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 1658–1680.
DeMott, P. J., A. J. Prenni, X. Liu, S. M. Kreidenweis, M. D. Petters, C. H. Twohy, M. S. Richardson, T. Eidhammer, and D. C. Rogers, 2010: Predicting global atmospheric ice nuclei distributions and their impacts on climate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 107, 11217–11222.
Duan, J., and J. Mao, 2009: Influence of aerosol on regional precipitation in North China, Chinese Sci. Bull., 54, 474–483, doi:10.1007/s11434-008-0447-6.
Eidhammer, T., P. J. DeMott, and S. M. Kreidenweis, 2009: A comparison of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations using a parcel model framework. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06202, doi:10.1029/2008JD011095.
Ekman, A. M. L., A. Engstr, and C. Wang, 2007: The effect of aerosol composition and concentration on the development and anvil properties of a continental deep convective cloud. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 1439–1143.
Fletcher, N. H., 1962: The physics of rainclouds, Cambridge University Press, London, 386 pp.
Ge, Z., and C. Zhou, 1985: The observations of atmospheric ice nuclei in Lanzhou. Plateau Meteor., 5, 167–171 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Hendricks, J., B. Kärcher, and U. Lohmann, 2011: Effects of ice nuclei on cirrus clouds in a global climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D18206, doi:10.1029/2010jd015302.
Huang, W., T. Cheng, J. Chen, C. Zong, M. Wu, and J. Liu, 1986: Ice nuceli concentration measurements in Shitashan, Fujian province. J. Nanjing Inst. Meteor., 1, 62–69 (in Chi nese).
Huffman, P. J., 1973: Supersaturation Spectra of AgI and Natural Ice Nuclei. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, 1080–1082.
Hussain, K., and A. Shaukat, 1989: A study of supersaturation spectra of deposition ice nuclei. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 6, 247–253.
Isono, K., and M. Komabayasi, 1954: The influence of volcanic dust on precipitation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 32, 345–353.
____, and T. Tanaka, 1966: Sudden Increase of Ice Nucleus Concentration Associated with Thunderstorm. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 44, 255–259.
____, _____, and A. Ono, 1959a: Volcanoes as a Source of Atmospheric Ice Nuclei, Nature, 183, 317–318, doi: 10.1038/183317a0.
____, _____, and _____, 1959b: The nature and the origin of ice nuclei in the atmosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 37, 211–233.
Kitagawa-Kitada, T., and H. Maruyama, 1979: Long term Observations of Ice Nueleus Concentration in Tokyo, Pap. Met. Geophys., 30, 133–139.
Klein, H., W. Haunold, U. Bundke, B. Nillius, T. Wetter, S. Schallenberg, and H. Bingemer, 2010: A new method for sampling of atmospheric ice nuclei with subsequent analysis in a static diffusion chamber. Atmos. Res., 96, 218–224.
Laboratory of Cloud Physics in Hebei provience, 1980: Ice nuclei and ice (snow) crystal in atmosphere. Hebei Peopel’s Publishing House, Hebei Province, China, 51 pp (in Chinese).
Li, J., and G. Huang, 2001: Analysis of observational results of content of ice nuclei in the atmosphere in the upper reaches of Huanghe river. Meteorol. Mon., 27, 8–12 (in Chinese with English abstract).
____, and J. Mao, 2006: Influence of atmospheric ice nucleus concentrations on cold cloud radiant properties and cold cloud reflectivity changes in past years. Chinese Sci. Bull., 51, 480–489.
____, _____, Z. Hu, L. You, and Q. Zhang, 2005: Numerical analysis of effects of atmospheric ice nuclei concentrations on radiant properties of cold clouds. ACTA Meteor. Sinica, 19, 102–111 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li, S., G. Huang, and Z. Hu, 2003: Analysis of ice nuclei in atmosphere in Hennan county in upper reaches of Huanghe river. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 14(suppl), 41–48 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Li, Z., and Coauthors, 2007: Preface to special section on East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE). J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22S00, doi:10.1029/2007jd008853.
Liu, X., J. E. Penner, S. J. Ghan, and M. Wang, 2007: Inclusion of Ice Microphysics in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3). J. Climate, 20, 4526–4547.
Meyers, M. P., P. J. DeMott, and W. R. Cotton, 1992: New Primary Ice-Nucleation Parameterizations in an Explicit Cloud Model. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 708–721.
Morrison, H., M. D. Shupe, J. O. Pinto, and J. A. Curry, 2005: Possible roles of ice nucleation mode and ice nuclei depletion in the extended lifetime of Arctic mixed-phase clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18801, doi:10.1029/2005GL023614.
Mossop, S. C., and N. S. C. Thorndike, 1966: The Use of Membrane Filters in Measurements of Ice Nucleus Concentration. I. Effect of Sampled Air Volume. J. Appl. Meteor., 5, 474–480.
Phillips, V. T. J., L. J. Donner, and S. T. Garner, 2007: Nucleation Processes in Deep Convection Simulated by a Cloud-System-Resolving Model with Double-Moment Bulk Microphysics. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 738–761.
____, P. J. DeMott, and A. Constantin, 2008: An Empirical Parameterization of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation for Multiple Chemical Species of Aerosol. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 2757–2783, doi: 10.1175/2007JAS2546.1.
Prenni, A. J., P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, J. Y. Harrington, A. Avramov, J. Verlinde, M. Tjernström, C. N. Long, and P. Q. Olsson, 2007: Can Ice-Nucleating Aerosols Affect Arctic Seasonal Climate?. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 541–550.
Rogers, D.C., 1988: Development of a continuous flow thermal gradient diffusion chamber for ice nucleation studies. Atmos. Res., 22, 149–181.
____, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, and Y. Chen, 2001: A Continuous-Flow Diffusion Chamber for Airborne Measurements of Ice Nuclei. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 18, 725–725.
Rosenfeld, D., U. Lohmann, G. B. Raga, C. D. O’Dowd, M. Kulmala, S. Fuzzi, A. Reissell, and M. O. Andreae, 2008: Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?. Science, 321, 1309–1313, doi:10.1126/science.1160606.
Sato, N., K. Kikuchi, Y. Asuma, H. Uyeda, and M. Kajikawa, 1998: Relationship between Ice Nuclei and Snowfalls Observed in the Arctic Regions. Jour. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido Univ. Ser. VII(Geophysics), 11, 345–361.
Schnell, R. C., 1979: A new technique for measureming atmospheric ice nuclei active at temperatures from −20°C to 0°C, with results. Seventh Conference on Inadvertent and Planned Weather Modification, Banff, Canada, 110–111 pp.
Shi, A., G. Zheng, and L. You, 2006: Observation and analysis on ice nucleus of henan county of Qinghai province in autumn 2003. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 17, 245–249 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Wang, X., W. Zhang, and S. Xiong, 1965: Ice nuclei in BaiCheng city in spring. ACTA Meteor. Sinica, 35, 273–279 (in Chinese).
Yang, S., P. Ma, and L. You, 1995: A static diffusion chamber for detecting atmospheric ice nuclei by using filter technique. ACTA Meteor. Sinica, 53, 91–100 (in Chinese with English abstract).
____, X. Wang, L. You, and J. Pi, 2004: Observations of ice nuclei concentration using mixing coud chamber and static diffusion chamber in Beijing. Meteor. Mon., 30, 39–43 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yin, J., D. Wang, and G. Zhai, 2011: Long-term in situ measurements of the cloud-precipitation microphysical properties over East Asia. Atmos. Res., 102, 206–217, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.07.002.
You, L., and Y. Liu, 1995. Some microphysical characteristics of cloud and precipitation over China. Atmos. Res., 35, 271–281.
____, and A. Shi, 1964: The measurement and analysis of ice-nucleus concentration at peking in 1963. ACTA Meteor. Sinica, 34, 548–554 (in Chinese with English abstract).
____, S. Yang, X. Wang, and J. Pi, 2002: Study of ice nuclei concentration at beijing in spring of 1995 and 1996. ACTA Meteor. Sinica, 60, 101–109 (in Chinese).
Vali, G., 1985: Nucleation terminology. J. Aerosol Sci., 16, 575–576.
Zamurs, J., G. Lala, and J. Jiusto, 1977: Factors Affecting Ice Nucleus Concentration Measurements with a Static Vapor-Diffusion Chamber. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 419–424.
Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, A. Y. Hou, M. Zhang, and J. Simpson, 2008: On the Sensitivity of Atmospheric Ensembles to Cloud Microphysics in Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 86A, 45–65.
____, _____, M. Zhang, A. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, D. O. Starr, X. Li, and J. Simpson, 2009a: An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 41–61.
____, _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____, 2009b: A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 1614–1629.
Zhai, P., X. Zhang, H. Wan, and X. Pan, 2005: Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J. Climate, 18, 1096–1108. doi:10.1175/JCLI-3318.1.
Zhao, C., X. Tie, and Y. Lin, 2006: A possible positive feedback of reduction of precipitation and increase in aerosols over eastern central China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11814, doi:10.1029/2006gl025959.
Zhao, J., M. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Chen, and D. Lai, 1965: Observation analysis of ice nuclei over northern of China. ACTA Meteor. Sinica, 35, 416–422 (in Chinese with Russian abstract).
Zhao, S., J. Dang, and J. Zhou, 2000: Measurement and analysis of ice nuclei over Xining area. In: Deligeer, Editor, Cloud-precipitation and Modification over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 24–29 pp (in Chinese).
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Yin, J., Wang, D. & Zhai, G. An evaluation of ice nuclei characteristics from the long-term measurement data over North China. Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 48, 197–204 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-012-0020-8
- Ice nuclei
- concentration variation
- parameterization of ice nuclei