Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework: a guide to developing and implementing second-generation mobile applications for behavioral health research
- 230 Downloads
Advances in mobile technology and mobile applications (apps) have opened up an exciting new frontier for behavioral health researchers, with a “second generation” of apps allowing for the simultaneous collection of multiple streams of data in real time. With this comes a host of technical decisions and ethical considerations unique to this evolving approach to research. Drawing on our experience developing a second-generation app for the simultaneous collection of text message, voice, and self-report data, we provide a framework for researchers interested in developing and using second-generation mobile apps to study health behaviors. Our Simplified Novel Application (SNApp) framework breaks the app development process into four phases: (1) information and resource gathering, (2) software and hardware decisions, (3) software development and testing, and (4) study start-up and implementation. At each phase, we address common challenges and ethical issues and make suggestions for effective and efficient app development. Our goal is to help researchers effectively balance priorities related to the function of the app with the realities of app development, human subjects issues, and project resource constraints.
KeywordsMobile applications Software development Best practices Mhealth Methodology Health
This work was supported by grant R21 HD067546-01A1 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development awarded to Deborah Scharf, Steven Martino, William Shadel, and Claude Setodji. The authors would like to thank Sarah Hauer, Stacey Gallaway, and Robert Hickam for their administrative support with the grant. They would also like to thank Matthias Mehl for his advice on how to use smartphones to capture speech.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Adherence to ethical principles
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee. All authors completed human subjects training prior to conducting the research, and all authors maintained up-to-date training throughout the course of the project. All participants gave informed consent prior to participation in the research.
- 1.Schwartz JE, Stone AA. The analysis of real-time momentary data: a practical guide. In: Stone AA, Shiffman S, Atienza AA, Nebeling L, eds. The science of real-time data capture: self-reports in health research. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007: 76-116.Google Scholar
- 9.Krueger RA, Casey MA. Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications; 2014.Google Scholar
- 10.Stewart DW, Shamdasani PN. Focus groups: theory and practice, vol. 20. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2015.Google Scholar
- 12.Nielsen. Smartphone switch: three-fourths of recent acquirers chose smartphones. 2013; http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2013/smartphone-switch--three-fourths-of-recent-acquirers-chose-smart.html. Accessed December 24, 2014.
- 13.Nielsen. Multiplying mobile: how multicultural consumers are leading smartphone adoption. 2014; http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2014/multiplying-mobile-how-multicultural-consumers-are-leading-smartphone-adoption.html. Accessed Dec 24, 2014
- 14.Pew Research Internet Project. Mobile technology fact sheet: highlights of the Pew Internet Project’s research related to mobile technology. 2014; http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet/. Accessed Dec 24 2014
- 15.Conner TS. Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment with mobile phones. 2015; http://www.otago.ac.nz/psychology/otago047475.pdf. Accessed June 29 2015
- 16.Ritter S. Apple’s ResearchKit development framework for iPhone apps enables innovative approaches to medical research data collection. J Clin Trials. 2015; 5, e120.Google Scholar
- 17.The connected enterprise: keeping pace with mobile development. Framingham, MA: CIO Strategic Marketing Services and Triangle Publishing Services Co. Inc.;2014.Google Scholar
- 18.Nielsen. Mobile millennials: over 85% of generation Y owns smartphones. 2014; http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2014/mobile-millennials-over-85-percent-of-generation-y-owns-smartphones.html. Accessed Dec 24, 2014.
- 21.Ritter FE, Baxter GD, Churchill EF. User-centered systems design: a brief history. Foundations for designing user-centered systems: Springer; 2014:33–54.Google Scholar
- 23.Beck K, Beedle M, van Bennekum A, et al. Manifesto for Agile Software development. 2001; http://agilemanifesto.org/. Accessed Dec 24 2014.
- 25.Royce WW. Managing the development of large software systems. Paper presented at: proceedings of IEEE WESCON1970.Google Scholar
- 26.Sommerville I. Software engineering. 10th ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley; 2015.Google Scholar
- 28.Abrahamsson P, Warsta J, Siponen MT, Ronkainen J. New directions on agile methods: a comparative analysis. Paper presented at: Software Engineering, 2003. Proceedings. 25th International Conference on 2003.Google Scholar
- 30.Munassar NMA, Govardhan A. A comparison between five models of software engineering. IJCSI. 2010; 5: 95-101.Google Scholar