Five population-based interventions for smoking cessation: a MOST trial
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Little is known about the relative, additive, and interactive effects of different population-based treatments for smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the main and interactive effects of five different smoking interventions. Using the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), 1,034 smokers who entered a Web site for smokers (smokefree.gov) were randomly assigned to the “on” and “off” conditions of five smoking cessation interventions: the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Web site (www.smokefree.gov vs a “lite” Web site), telephone quitline counseling (vs none), a smoking cessation brochure (vs a lite brochure), motivational e-mail messages (vs none), and mini-lozenge nicotine replacement therapy (NRT vs none). Analyses showed that the NCI Web site and NRT both increased abstinence; however, the former increased abstinence significantly only when it was not used with the e-mail messaging intervention (messaging decreased Web site use). The other interventions showed little evidence of effectiveness. There was evidence that mailed nicotine mini-lozenges and the NCI Web site (www.smokefree.gov) provide benefit as population-based smoking interventions.
KEYWORDSSmoking cessation Web site evaluation MOST research Telephone quitline Nicotine replacement
This was an investigator-designed study undertaken in response to a contract to the University of Wisconsin from Matthews Media Group, underwritten by ARRA funding to the National Cancer Institute. Additional funding for Timothy Baker was provided by the National Cancer Institute (5K05CA139871). The funders worked under the direction of the investigators to implement the study-required design and procedures in the Smokefree.gov Web site, providing required data reports on enrollment and Web site usage. The funders played no role in the design, conduct or analysis of the study, nor in the interpretation and reporting of the study findings. The researchers were independent from the funders. All authors, external and internal, had full access to all of the data (including statistical reports and tables) in the study and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
The project was funded through a contract to our university from Matthews Media Group, underwritten by ARRA funding to the National Cancer Institute. Additional funding was provided by the National Cancer Institute (5K05CA139871).
Conflict of interest
David Fraser, Kate Kobinsky, Stevens Smith, Jason Kramer, Wendy Theobald, and Timothy Baker declare that they have no conflict of interest. All procedures, including the informed consent process, were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.
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