Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 167–171 | Cite as

Perspectives for Concepts of Individualized Radionuclide Therapy, Molecular Radiotherapy, and Theranostic Approaches

  • Makoto HosonoEmail author


Radionuclide therapy (RNT) stands on the delivery of radiation to tumors or non-tumor target organs using radiopharmaceuticals that are designed to have specific affinity to targets. RNT is recently called molecular radiotherapy (MRT) by some advocators in order to emphasize its characteristics as radiotherapy and the relevance of dosimetry-guided optimization of treatment. Moreover, RNT requires relevant radiation protection standards because it employs unsealed radionuclides and gives therapeutic radiation doses in humans. On the basis of these radiation protection standards, the development and use of radiopharmaceuticals for combined application through diagnostics and therapeutics lead to theranostic approaches that will enhance the efficacy and safety of treatment by implementing dosimetry-based individualization.


Radionuclide therapy Theranostics Radiopharmaceuticals 



The author is grateful to Drs. Yoshiharu Yonekura, Sören Mattsson, Wesley Bolch, Glenn Flux, Darrell Fisher, Stig Palm, Alfred Morgenstern, Kimberly Applegate, Madan Rehani, Colin Martin, Keon Kang, and Reiko Kanda for their great supports in collecting updates on scientific reports.


This work was funded by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP 18K07651, MHLW Health Labour Sciences Research Grant Number 201721015A, and Nuclear Regulation Agency Japan Grant on management of short-lived alpha emitters.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Makoto Hosono declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Advanced Clinical Medicine and Department of RadiologyKindai University Faculty of MedicineOsaka-SayamaJapan

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