For an understanding of the concept of the Quadruple and Quintuple Helix Innovation Systems, it is essential to realize that the Quadruple and Quintuple Helices are based on democracy and ecology. This has two implications: (1) the further advancement and evolution of knowledge and innovation are requiring a co-evolution with democracy or knowledge democracy, and (2) ecology, ecological sensitivity, and environmental protection are a necessity for the survival of humanity, but they should also be regarded as drivers for further knowledge production and innovation development. This implies that for an innovation system to be a Quadruple and Quintuple Helix Innovation System, the government and the political system, addressing the innovation system, must be democratic in substance, and not only in form. This indicates how a Quadruple and Quintuple Helix differs from Triple Helix approaches to innovation. Furthermore, within the framework of Quadruple and Quintuple Helix, the “Democracy of Climate” for innovation and the “Democracy of Knowledge” are combined together in creating a nexus. Implications for strategy, policy, and practice are manifold, also incorporating aspects of Industry 5.0 and Society 5.0.
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Carayannis, E.G., Campbell, D.F.J. & Grigoroudis, E. Helix Trilogy: the Triple, Quadruple, and Quintuple Innovation Helices from a Theory, Policy, and Practice Set of Perspectives. J Knowl Econ 13, 2272–2301 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-021-00813-x