Advertisement

Three Stages of Innovation in Participatory Journalism—Co-initiating, Co-sensing, and Co-creating News in the Chicago School Cuts Case

  • Taneli Heikka
  • Elias G. Carayannis
Article

Abstract

This article introduces a new way of thinking about innovation in the public sphere through the three collaborative steps of co-initiating, co-sensing, and co-creating news. We investigate a case of mediatized civic responses to public school closings in Chicago, Illinois to understand how participatory news production was initiated from outside the newsrooms and added value to the public debate. A network of civic activists analyzed and visualized data, reported live from school grounds, and developed networks and tools to challenge the local government’s narrative for the school closings. We argue that a limited understanding of the process of co-creation has confined the practice and analysis of collaboration between audiences and professional journalists in news production. Focusing on digital platforms and technologically capable individuals has ignored the majority of the public as potential news producers. Furthermore, we suggest that on the level playing field of contemporary innovation systems, professional journalists can be seen to be participating in the co-creation of journalism initiated by the civil society, challenging the conventional model of newsroom-led participatory journalism. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for innovation systems. We suggest that the fine-tuned steps of co-initiating, co-sensing, and co-creating innovations can help in developing the role of the media-based civil society in innovation systems. Applying these steps in practice can help in making the innovations emerging from these systems socially inclusive and sustainable.

Keywords

Co-creation Dialogue Dialogic journalism Participatory journalism Innovation Innovation systems Quadruple Helix 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Taneli Heikka wishes to thank the Helsingin Sanomat Foundation for financing this research.

References

  1. Ahmed-Ullah, N.S., Coen, J., and Richards, A. (2013) School closings: a closer look at CPS strategy. Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013–04-12/news/ct-met-cps-closing-chunks-20130412_1_school-closings-new-school-blocks Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  2. Aitamurto, T. (2013). Balancing between open and closed. Digital Journalism, 1(2), 229–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitamurto, T., & Lewis, S. C. (2013). Open innovation in digital journalism: examining the impact of open APIs at four news organizations. New Media Soc, 15(2), 314–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allan, S., & Thorsen, E. (Eds.). (2009). Citizen journalism: global perspectives. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  5. Bast, G., Carayannis, E., & Campbell, D. (Eds.). (2015). Arts, research, innovation and society. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Boczkowski, P. (2004). Digitizing the news: innovation in online newspapers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bohm, D. (1996). On dialogue. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohm, D., Factor, D., and Garrett, P. (1991). Dialogue - A proposal http://www.david-bohm.net/dialogue/dialogue_proposal.html Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  9. Bowman, S., & Willis, C. (2003). We media: how audiences are shaping the future of news and information. The Media Center at the American Press Institute Retrieved 23 Jan. 2017. Reston: VA.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, J., Isaacs, D., & The World Café Community. (2005). The world café—shaping our futures through conversations that matter. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publisher.Google Scholar
  11. Bruns, A. (2007). Produsage: towards a broader framework for user-led content creation. In Proceedings Creativity & Cognition 6, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  12. Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and beyond: from production to produsage. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  13. Bruns, A. (2014). Media innovations, user innovations, societal innovations. Journal of Media Innovations, 1(1), 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bushe, G. R., & Marshak, R. J. (2016). The dialogic organization development approach to transformation and change. In W. Rothwell, J. Stravros, & R. Sullivan (Eds.), Practicing organization development 4th Ed (pp. 407–418). San Francisco: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Carayannis, E. & Campbell, D. (2014). Developed democracies versus emerging autocracies: arts, democracy, and innovation in Quadruple Helix innovation systems. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2014, 3:12. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  16. Carayannis, E., & Campbell, D. (2012). Mode 3 knowledge production in Quadruple Helix innovation systems: twenty-first-century democracy, innovation, and entrepreneurship for development. New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carayannis, E. & Campbell, D. (2014) Developed democracies versus emerging autocracies: arts, democracy, and innovation in Quadruple Helix innovation systems. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2014, 3:12. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  18. Carayannis, E., & Grigoroudis, E. (2016). Quadruple Innovation Helix and smart specialization: knowledge production and national competitiveness. Форсайт, (1 (eng)).Google Scholar
  19. Carayannis, E., & Rakhmatullin, R. (2014). The Quadruple/Quintuple Innovation Helixes and smart specialisation strategies for sustainable and inclusive growth in Europe and beyond. Journal of the Knowledge Economy June, 5(2), 212–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chesbrough, H. (2003). Open innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. HBS Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cora, C. (2012) Meet the mom who’s taking on Chicago Public Schools. Chicago Magazine. https://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20121212/chicago/meet-mom-whos-taking-on-chicago-public-schools Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  22. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dahan, N. M., Doh, J. P., Oetzel, J., & Yaziji, M. (2010). Corporate-NGO collaboration: co-creating new business models for developing markets. Long Range Plan, 43(2), 326–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deuze, M. (2001) Online journalism: modelling the first generation of news media on the World Wide Web. First Monday. Vol. 6., Number 10. University of Illinois at Chicago.Google Scholar
  25. Deuze, M., Bruns, A., & Neuberger, C. (2007). Preparing for an age of participatory news. Journal Pract, 1(3), 322–338.Google Scholar
  26. Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. New York: H. Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  27. Domingo, D., Quandt, T., Heinonen, A., Paulussen, S., Singer, J. B., & Vujnovic, M. (2008). Participatory journalism practices in the media and beyond: an international comparative study of initiatives in online newspapers. Journal Pract, 2(3), 326–342.Google Scholar
  28. Ekdale, B., Singer, J. B., Tully, M., & Harmsen, S. (2015). Making change: diffusion of technological, relational and cultural innovation in the newsroom. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 92.Google Scholar
  29. Erbach, M. (2015): Facilitating targeted open innovation by applying pragmatic identity matching; Journal of the Knowledge Economy/Special Issue Targeted Open Innovation 2015, DOI  10.1007/s13132-015-0293-0; Springer USA
  30. Freeman, J., & Quirke, S. (2013). Understanding E-democracy. eJournal of E-Democracy and Open Government, 5(2), 141–154.Google Scholar
  31. Fulton, W. K. (2012) Community learning: broadening the base for collaborative action National Civic Review Volume 101, Issue 3, pages 12–22, Autumn (Fall)
  32. George, G., McGahan, A. M., & Prabhu, J. (2012). Innovation for inclusive growth: towards a theoretical framework and a research agenda. J Manag Stud, 49(4), 661–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gillmor, D. (2004). We the media grassroots journalism by the people, for the people. California: O'Reilly Media.Google Scholar
  34. Glasser, T. (1999). The idea of public journalism. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Goldstein, B. and Dyson, L. (2013). Beyond Transparency: Open Data and the Future of Government. San Francisco, CA: Code for America press.Google Scholar
  36. Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educ Commun Technol, 29(2), 75–91.Google Scholar
  37. Gunaratna, S. (2013). The Mom Who’s Challenging CPS on it Data. Chicago Tonight WTTW. http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2013/05/07/mom-who-s-challenging-cps-its-data
  38. Gynnild, A. (2013). Journalism innovation leads to innovation journalism: the impact of computational exploration on changing mindsets. Journalism, 15(6), 713–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Habermas, J. (1991). The structural transformation of the public sphere: an inquiry into a category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  40. Heinonen, A. (1999). Journalism in the age of the net: changing society, changing profession. Tampere University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Hermida, A., Lewis, S. C., & Zamith, R. (2014). Sourcing the Arab Spring: a case study of Andy Carvin’s sources on Twitter during the Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions. J Comput-Mediat Commun, 19, 479–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jarvis, J. (2006). Networked journalism. Retrieved from http://www.buzzmachine.com/2006/07/05/networked-journalism Retrieved 10 March 2017
  43. Jian, L., & Usher, N. (2014). Crowd-funded journalism: the case of Spot.Us. J Comput-Mediat Commun, 19(2), 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khamis, S. and Vaughn, K. (2011) Cyberactivism in the Egyptian Revolution: how civic engagement and citizen journalism tilted the balance. Arab Media and Society. Issue 14.Google Scholar
  45. Lasica, J. D. (1996). Net gain. Am Journal Rev, 18(9), 20–34.Google Scholar
  46. Leadbeater, C. (2009). We-think: mass innovation, not mass production. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  47. Leadbeater, C., Miller, P., & Demos. (2004). The pro-am revolution: how enthusiasts are changing our society and economy. London: Demos.Google Scholar
  48. Lehtonen, P 2008. Civic expression on the Net: different faces of public engagement. In Net Working/Networking: citizen initiated Internet politics, eds. T H€ayhtio€, and J Rinne. Tampere: Tampereen yliopisto, 163–188.Google Scholar
  49. Levy, P. (1997). Collective intelligence: mankind’s emerging world in cyberspace. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  50. Lewis, C. 2010. Journalism innovation and the ethic of participation: a case study of the Knight Foundation and its news challenge. PhD Dissertation. http://sethlewis.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Seth-C.-Lewis-dissertation-2010.pdf Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  51. Lewis, S. C., & Usher, N. (2013). Open source and journalism: toward new frameworks for imagining news innovation. Media, Culture & Society, 35(5), 602–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewis, S. C., & Usher, N. (2014). Code, collaboration, and the future of journalism: a case study of the Hacks/Hackers global network. Digital Journalism, 2(3), 383–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewis, Kauhfold and Lasorsa. (2010) Thinking about citizen journalism. Journalism practice, Volume 4, issue 2, 2010. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.1080/14616700903156919
  54. Locke, K. (2010). Abduction. In A. Mills, G. Durepos, & E. Wiebe (Eds.), Encyclopedia of case study research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Manteaw, B. (2008). From tokenism to social justice: rethinking the bottom line for sustainable community development. Community Development Journal, 43(4), 428–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCann, L. (2015). Experimental modes of civic engagement in civic tech: meeting people where they are. Chicago, IL: Smart Chicago Collaborative.Google Scholar
  57. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). California: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Moser, W. (2013) Two sites you should be looking at as CPS announces massive school closures. Chicago Magazine. http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/The-312/March-2013/Two-Sites-You-Should-Be-Looking-At-As-CPS-Announces-Massive-School-Closure/ Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  59. Mulgan, G., Tucker, S., Rushanara, A., & Sanders, B. (2007). Social innovation: what it is, why it matters and how it can be accelerated. The Young Foundation, London.Google Scholar
  60. Murphy, P. (2016) NUCLEUS Field Trip Report: Media (Budapest).Google Scholar
  61. Nordfors, Ventresca et. al. (2006) Innovation journalism—towards research on the interplay of journalism in innovation ecosystems. Innovation Journalism Vol 3(2) May 28.Google Scholar
  62. O’Hern, M., & Rindfleisch, A. (2010). Customer co-creation. Review of marketing research, 84–116.Google Scholar
  63. O’Riordan, L., & Fairbrass, J. (2008). Corporate social responsibility (CSR): models and theories in stakeholder dialogue. J Bus Ethics, 83(4), 745–758.Google Scholar
  64. Olson, J-M. (N.d.) Anatomy of an open gov project: Apples to Apples & SchoolCuts.org. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1eBVWUaK89S1D4Tn2zwyuQHAfYafd-zUwD5Qf_BwiHy0/edit Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  65. O'Sullivan, J. and & Heinonen, A. (2008) Old values, new media journalism role perceptions in a changing world journalism practice Volume 2, Issue 3, 2008Google Scholar
  66. Patel, M., Sotsky, J., Gourley, S., & Houghton, D. (2013). The emergence of civic tech: investments in a growing field. Knight Foundation.Google Scholar
  67. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). The future of competition: co-creating unique value with customers. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  68. Radjou, N., Prabhu, J., & Ahuja, S. (2012). Jugaad innovation: think frugal, be flexible, generate breakthrough growth. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  69. Reichertz, Jo (2009) Abduction: the logic of discovery of grounded theory. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 1, nov. 2009.Google Scholar
  70. Rheingold, H. (2000). The virtual community: homesteading on the electronic frontier. London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  71. Rogers, E. (1962/2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Singapore: Free Press.Google Scholar
  72. Rosen, J. (1999). What are journalists for? Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Rosen, J. (2006). The people formerly known as the audience. Pressthink.Google Scholar
  74. Scharmer, O. (2009). Theory U: leading from the future as it emerges. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc..Google Scholar
  75. Scharmer, O., & Kaufer, K. (2013). Leading from the emerging future: from ego-system to eco-system economies. California: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc..Google Scholar
  76. Senge, Peter M. (1990). The fifth discipline, doubleday/currencyGoogle Scholar
  77. Singer, J.B., Domingo, D., Heinonen, A., Hermida, A., Paulussen, S., Quandt, T.,Reich, Z., Vujnovic, M. (2011). Participatory journalism: guarding open gates at online newspapers. Wiley. Kindle Edition.Google Scholar
  78. Smith, A., & Rainie, L. (2008). The Internet and the 2008 election. Washington, DC: Pew Trust: Pew Internet & American Life Project Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_2008_election.pdf.Google Scholar
  79. Steensen, S. (2011). Cozy journalism. The rise of social cohesion as an ideal in online, participatory journalism. Journal Pract, 5(6).Google Scholar
  80. Usher, N. (2011). Professional journalists—hands off! Citizen journalism as civic responsibility. In R. McChesney & V. Pickard (Eds.), Will the last reporter please turn out the lights?: the collapse of journalism and what can be done to fix it. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  81. Väätäjä, H., Sirkkunen, E., and Helle, M. (2011) Wp3 generic research d3.01.3 co-creation. Next media—a Tivit programme. Phase 1 (1.2–31.12.2010).Google Scholar
  82. von Hippel, E. (2005). Democratizing innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  83. Wetli, P. (2013) CPS school closings: mom uses ‘raise your hand’ to slap back at district. DNAinfo. https://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20130415/lincoln-square/cps-school-closings-mom-uses-raise-your-hand-slap-back-at-district Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  84. Yaccinomay, S. (2013) Protests fail to deter Chicago from shutting 49 schools http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/23/education/despite-protests-chicago-closing-schools.html?ref=education&_r=2& Retrieved 10 March 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  2. 2.George Washington UniversityWashington, D.C.USA

Personalised recommendations