Journal of the Knowledge Economy

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 199–211 | Cite as

The Impact of Entrepreneurial Universities on Regional Growth: a Local Intellectual Capital Perspective

  • Raffaele Trequattrini
  • Rosa Lombardi
  • Alessandra Lardo
  • Benedetta Cuozzo
Article

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the relationship between the entrepreneurial universities activities and the local economic growth through an empirical analysis. In order to assess how entrepreneurial universities could play a primary role in creating an entrepreneurial culture, three-pillar activities of Italian higher institutions have been measured and correlated to specific economic variables at the local level. Starting from the concept of a learning region and using findings of the research, the final aim of the study was to introduce the concept of local intellectual capital and, in this perspective, to appreciate the function of entrepreneurial universities in fostering and enhancing the intangible resources of a territory. Therefore, through the analysis of research findings, entrepreneurial universities are considered as acquiring a crucial function as intermediaries that are able to manage and enhance local intellectual capital and to make possible the learning region growth. University managers have to comprehend the relevance of the surrounding environment and of developing an entrepreneurial mindset for the outliving of their institution; at the same time, governments need to design focused policies giving higher priority to nurturing local entrepreneurs, promoting successful entrepreneurial role models and removing bureaucratic impediments to start-ups and business-like initiatives.

Keywords

Entrepreneurial universities Regional economic growth Local intellectual capital Italy 

References

  1. Aldrich, H. E., & Martinez, M. A. (2007). Many are called, but few are chosen: an evolutionary perspective for the study of entrepreneurship. In A. Cuervo, D. Ribeiro, & S. Roig (Eds.), Entrepreneurship (pp. 293–311). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, E. S. (2011). Joseph A. Schumpeter: a theory of social and economic evolution. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, D., Sweeney, D., Williams, T., Camm, J., & Cochran, J. (2012). Quantitative methods for business. London: Cengage Learning EMEA.Google Scholar
  4. Arthur, B. (2009). The nature of technology: what it is and how it evolves. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bellandi, M., Dei Ottati, G., & Sforzi, F. (Eds.). (2003). From industrial districts to local development: an itinerary of research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  6. Belussi, F. (2011). The new Marshallian districts and their process of internationalization. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 90–102). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Belussi, F., & Sammarra, A. (Eds.). (2010). Business networks in clusters and industrial districts: the governance of the global value chain. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Bosma, N., Schujens, V., & Stam, E. (2011). Regional entrepreneurship. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 90–102). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Cainelli, G., & De Liso, N. (2005). Innovation in industrial districts: evidence from Italy. Industry and Innovation, 12(3), 383–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Capello, R. (2011). Innovation and productivity: local competitiveness and the role of space. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 107–118). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Clarck, B. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: organization pathways of transformation. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cook, P. (1998). Introduction: origins of the concept. In H. Braczyk, P. Cooke, & M. Heidenreich (Eds.), Regional innovation systems: the role of governances in a globalized world (pp. 2–25). London: UCL-Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cooke, P. (2002). Regional innovation systems: general findings and some new evidence from biotechnology clusters. Journal of Technology Transfer, 27(1), 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooke, P. (2008). Regional innovation systems: origin of the species. International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 1(3), 393–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke, P. N., Boekholt, P., & Tödtling, F. (2000). The governance of innovation in Europe: Regional perspectives on global competitiveness. Cengage Learning EMEA.Google Scholar
  16. Cooke, P., Heidenreich, M., & Braczyk, H. (Eds.). (2004). Regional innovation systems: the role of governances in a globalized world ì (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Etzkowitz, H. (2003). Research groups as quasi-firms: the invention of the entrepreneurial university. Research Policy, 32(1), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Research Policy, 29(2), 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fayolle, A., & Redford, D. T. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook on the entrepreneurial university. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Felsenstein, D. (2011). Human capital and labour mobility determinants of regional innovation. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 119–131). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  21. Florida, R. (2006). The flight of the creative class. the new global competition for talent. New York: Collins.Google Scholar
  22. Foray, D. (2000). L’Economie de la Connaissance. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  23. Foray, D., & Lundvall, B. (1998). The knowledge-based economy: from the economics of knowledge to the learning economy. The economic impact of knowledge, pp. 115–121.Google Scholar
  24. Groysberg, B. (2012). Chasing stars: the myth of talent and the portability of performance. Woodstock: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2012). The development of an entrepreneurial university. Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), 43–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haynie, J. M., & Shepherd, D. (2009). A measure of adaptive cognition for entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 695–714.Google Scholar
  27. Jacobs, J. (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  28. Johannisson, B. (1991). University training for entrepreneurship: Swedish approaches. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 3(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klofsten, M., & Öberg, S. (2011). Regional entrepreneurship development: promoting spin-offs through coaching and mentoring. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Krueger, N. F. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(1), 123–138.Google Scholar
  31. Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: development, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(5), 577–598.Google Scholar
  32. Lombardi, R., Trequattrini, R., & Battista, M. (2014). Systematic errors in decision making processes: the case of the Italian Serie A football championship. International Journal of Applied Decision Sciences, 7(3), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lundvall, B. (1992). Introduction. In B. Lundvall (Ed.), National systems of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning (pp. 1–22). London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Lundvall, B. A., & Johnson, B. (1994). The learning economy. Journal of Industry Studies, 1(1), 23–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Markowska, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial competence development. Triggers, processes and consequences. JIBS Dissertation Series, No. 071. Jonkoping: Jonkoping International Business School.Google Scholar
  36. Markowska, M. (2014). The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree: the entrepreneurial university as nurturer of entrepreneurial values. In A. Fayolle & D. T. Redford (Eds.), Handbook on the entrepreneurial university. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  37. Marshall, A. (1890). Principles of political economy. New York: Maxmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Michaels, E., Handfield-Jones, H., & Axelrod, B. (2001). The war for talent. Boston: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  39. Mok, K. H. (2015). The quest for global competitiveness: promotion of innovation and entrepreneurial universities in Singapore. Higher Education Policy, 28, 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mueller, P. (2006). Exploring the knowledge filter: how entrepreneurship and university-industry relationships drive economic growth. Research Policy, 35(10), 1499–1508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Myers, M. D. (2013). Qualitative research in business & management. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Nauwelaers, C. (2011). Intermediaries in regional innovation systems: role and challenges for policy. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 467–481). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Nauwelaers, C., & Reid, A. (1995). Methodologies for the evaluation of regional innovation potential. Scientometrics, 34(3), 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Polanyi, M. (2012). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing returns and long-run growth. The Journal of Political Economy, 1002–1037.Google Scholar
  47. Schumpeter, J. A. (2000). Entrepreneurship as innovation. In Entrepreneurship: The social science view (pp. 51–75).Google Scholar
  48. Simmie, J. (2011). Learning regions. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 107–118). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Stewart, T. A. (1997). Intellectual capital: the new wealth of organisations. London: Nicholas Brealey.Google Scholar
  50. Stryker, S. (1980). Symbolic interactionism: a social structural version. Menlo Park: Benjamin Cummings.Google Scholar
  51. Trequattrini, R., Russo, G., & Lombardi, R. (2012). Defining business network. International Journal of Business Research and Management, 3(1), 29–34.Google Scholar
  52. Waters, D. (2008). Quantitative methods for business. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  53. Wolfe, D. (2011). Neo-Schumpeterian perspectives on innovation and growth. In P. Cooke, B. T. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Handbook of regional innovation and growth (pp. 43–53). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  54. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raffaele Trequattrini
    • 1
  • Rosa Lombardi
    • 2
  • Alessandra Lardo
    • 1
  • Benedetta Cuozzo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Economics and LawUniversity of Cassino and Southern LazioCassinoItaly
  2. 2.Department of ResearchUniversity of Rome “Link Campus”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations