Journal of the Knowledge Economy

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 467–493 | Cite as

Quadruple Helix Structures of Quality of Democracy in Innovation Systems: the USA, OECD Countries, and EU Member Countries in Global Comparison

  • David F. J. Campbell
  • Elias G. Carayannis
  • Scheherazade S. Rehman


The analytical research question of this contribution is twofold. (1) To develop (and to proto-type) a conceptual framework of analysis for a global comparison of quality of democracy. This framework also references to the concept of the “Quadruple Helix innovation systems” (Carayannis and Campbell). (2) The same conceptual framework is being used and tested for comparing and measuring empirical quality of democracy in the different OECD and European Union (EU27) member countries. In theoretical and conceptual terms, we refer to a Quadruple-Dimensional structure, also a Quadruple Helix structure (a “Model of Quadruple Helix Structures”) of the four basic (conceptual) dimensions of freedom, equality, control, and sustainable development for explaining and comparing democracy and quality of democracy. Put in summary, we may conclude for the USA that the comparative strength of quality of democracy in the USA focuses on the dimension of freedom. The comparative weakness of the quality of democracy in the USA lies in the dimension of equality, most importantly income equality. Quadruple Helix refers here to at least two crucial perspectives: (1) the unfolding of an innovative knowledge economy also requires (at least in a longer perspective) the unfolding of a knowledge democracy; (2) knowledge and innovation are being defined as key for sustainable development and for the further evolution of quality of democracy. How to innovate (and reinvent) knowledge democracy? There is a potential that democracy discourses and innovation discourses advance in a next-step and two-way mutual cross-reference. The architectures of Quadruple Helix (and Quintuple Helix) innovation systems demand and require the formation of a democracy, implicating that quality of democracy provides for a support and encouragement of innovation and innovation systems, so that quality of democracy and progress of innovation mutually “Cross-Helix” in a connecting and amplifying mode and manner. This relates research on quality of democracy to research on innovation (innovation systems) and the knowledge economy. “Cyber democracy” receives here a new and important meaning.


Basic quadruple-dimensional structure of quality of democracy Democracy Cyber democracy Interdisciplinary International comparison of OECD and European Union member countries Knowledge democracy Quadruple and quintuple helix Quadruple helix innovation systems Quality of democracy Trans-disciplinary USA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • David F. J. Campbell
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elias G. Carayannis
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Scheherazade S. Rehman
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (iff), Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education Research (WIHO)Alpen-Adria-University of KlagenfurtViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Department of Information Systems and Technology ManagementGeorge Washington University, School of BusinessWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Elliott School of International AffairsGeorge Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  5. 5.Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship George Washington University, School of BusinessWashingtonUSA
  6. 6.Innovation and EntrepreneurshipMacedoniaGreece

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