In summary, intense ISW events in the Lombok Strait have remarkable vertical displacements within a few minutes, thereby significantly affecting the underwater navigation and action of submarine. This numerical study concludes an ISW packet with a maximum amplitude of 40 m at the wreckage site on 20 April (UTC) 2021, which is likely the culprit to the sunk KRI Nanggala-402 submarine. Although satellite observations and numerical modelling have illustrated the crucial role of ISWs in the ocean interior, in situ observations of ISWs are needed to tell a more complete story in the future.
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We acknowledge the use of MODIS-Aqua imagery from the NASA Worldview application (https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov). The numerical simulation is supported by the High Performance Computing Division and HPC managers of Wei Zhou and Dandan Sui in the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology.
The Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) under contract No. QYZDJ-SSW-DQC034; the fund of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou) under contract No. GML2019ZD0304; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41521005, 41776007, 41776008 and 91858201; the fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. ISEE2021PY01; the Youth Science and Technology Innovation Talent of Guangdong TeZhi Plan under contract No. 2019TQ05H519; the Rising Star Foundation of SCSIO under contract No. NHXX2019WL0201; the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province under contract Nos 2020A1515010495, 2021A1515012538 and 2021A1515011613; the Youth Innovation Promotion Association from CAS under contract No. 2018378.
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Gong, Y., Xie, J., Xu, J. et al. Oceanic internal solitary waves at the Indonesian submarine wreckage site. Acta Oceanol. Sin. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-021-1893-0