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Oceanic internal solitary waves at the Indonesian submarine wreckage site


In summary, intense ISW events in the Lombok Strait have remarkable vertical displacements within a few minutes, thereby significantly affecting the underwater navigation and action of submarine. This numerical study concludes an ISW packet with a maximum amplitude of 40 m at the wreckage site on 20 April (UTC) 2021, which is likely the culprit to the sunk KRI Nanggala-402 submarine. Although satellite observations and numerical modelling have illustrated the crucial role of ISWs in the ocean interior, in situ observations of ISWs are needed to tell a more complete story in the future.

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We acknowledge the use of MODIS-Aqua imagery from the NASA Worldview application ( The numerical simulation is supported by the High Performance Computing Division and HPC managers of Wei Zhou and Dandan Sui in the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology.

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Correspondence to Jieshuo Xie or Shuqun Cai.

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The Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) under contract No. QYZDJ-SSW-DQC034; the fund of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou) under contract No. GML2019ZD0304; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41521005, 41776007, 41776008 and 91858201; the fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. ISEE2021PY01; the Youth Science and Technology Innovation Talent of Guangdong TeZhi Plan under contract No. 2019TQ05H519; the Rising Star Foundation of SCSIO under contract No. NHXX2019WL0201; the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province under contract Nos 2020A1515010495, 2021A1515012538 and 2021A1515011613; the Youth Innovation Promotion Association from CAS under contract No. 2018378.

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Gong, Y., Xie, J., Xu, J. et al. Oceanic internal solitary waves at the Indonesian submarine wreckage site. Acta Oceanol. Sin. (2021).

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