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Numerical modelling of nonlinear extreme waves in presence of wind

Abstract

A numerical wave flume with fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions is adopted to investigate the temporal characteristics of extreme waves in the presence of wind at various speeds. Incident wave trains are numerically generated by a piston-type wave maker, and the wind-excited pressure is introduced into dynamic boundary conditions using a pressure distribution over steep crests, as defined by Jeffreys’ sheltering mechanism. A boundary value problem is solved by a higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM) and a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian time marching scheme. The proposed model is validated through comparison with published experimental data from a focused wave group. The influence of wind on extreme wave properties, including maximum extreme wave crest, focal position shift, and spectrum evolution, is also studied. To consider the effects of the wind-driven currents on a wave evolution, the simulations assume a uniform current over varying water depth. The results show that wind causes weak increases in the extreme wave crest, and makes the nonlinear energy transfer non-reversible in the focusing and defocusing processes. The numerical results also provide a comparison to demonstrate the shifts at focal points, considering the combined effects of the winds and the wind-driven currents.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chongwei Zhang.

Additional information

Foundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 51679036, 51490672 and 51709038; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under contract Nos DUT17GJ202 and DUT16RC(3)113; the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering under contract No. 2016490111.

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Ning, D., Du, J., Bai, W. et al. Numerical modelling of nonlinear extreme waves in presence of wind. Acta Oceanol. Sin. 37, 90–98 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-018-1268-3

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Key words

  • extreme waves
  • fully nonlinear numerical wave flume
  • higher-order boundary element
  • wave focusing
  • Jeffreys’ sheltering mechanism