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The effects of DDT on the feeding, respiration, survival, and reproduction of Sinocalanus tenellus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

Abstract

DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) as a type of organochlorine pesticides, is an important component of pesticides pollution whose impact on the marine ecosystem is urgently to be evaluated. To investigate the biological effects of DDT on the marine ecosystem, copepods being the main contributor of secondary productivity in the marine ecosystem, were selected as target animals. The influence of DDT on the feeding, respiration, survival, and reproduction of Sinocalanus tenellus (S. tenellus) was analyzed and the antioxidant enzymes activities in the individuals were measured under different exposure concentrations of DDT. The 48 h median lethal concentration (LC50) and 96 h LC50 of DDT to S. tenellus were 5.44 and 2.50 μg/dm3, respectively. The filtration rates, grazing rates, and respiration of S. tenellus decreased apparently with increased DDT concentrations. Under lower concentration (<625 ng/dm3) of DDT, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and catalase in the animals increased significantly compared with those in the animals without any exposure to DDT, which suggested that the antioxidant enzymes can protect the animals from oxidative damage. However, the activity of the antioxidant enzyme decreased when the animals were exposed to higher concentration (1 250–2 500 ng/dm3) of DDT. The survival rate of both females and males was reduced when they were exposed to DDT less than 250 ng/dm3, but females showed higher survival rate than males when they are under the same concentration. The hatching ratio and the egg diameters of S. tenellus decreased significantly when they were exposed to DDT with a concentration of 25 and 250 ng/dm3, however, the cumulative egg production did not show any significant variation when the animals were exposed to the above DDT concentration. These data in the preset study suggested that exposure to DDT can cause the variation of the species composition of copepods, and further affect the marine ecosystem.

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Correspondence to Guangxing Liu.

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Foundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 40876066; the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41106095.

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Xu, D., Liu, G. The effects of DDT on the feeding, respiration, survival, and reproduction of Sinocalanus tenellus (Copepoda: Calanoida). Acta Oceanol. Sin. 33, 133–138 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-014-0524-4

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Key words

  • DDT
  • Sinocalanus tenellus
  • survival
  • reproduction
  • feeding
  • respiration
  • antioxidant enzyme