A new giant egg-laying onychophoran (Peripatopsidae) reveals evolutionary and biogeographical aspects of Australian velvet worms

Abstract

Representatives of Ooperipatellus (Peripatopsidae) are among the smallest onychophorans known, commonly varying between 10 and 20 mm in length. Herein, we present a peculiar new species of Ooperipatellus from Tasmania that can exceed twice the length of other representatives of this taxon. Ooperipatellus nickmayeri sp. nov. is comprehensively described based on morphological, molecular, karyological and slime protein profile data. Morphological analyses expose a set of novel features in this species, including a swollen area covered with a modified integument on the posterior border of the male genital pad, modified papillae on the female ovipositor and the presence of pseudoplicae in the dorsal integument. The evolutionary significance of pseudoplicae remains unclear, but similarities between O. nickmayeri sp. nov. and Plicatoperipatus jamaicensis, the only species from which these structures were previously known, suggest they evolved due to functional constraints of the onychophoran integument. Our karyological investigation further revealed that the new species has the largest karyotype known within Peripatopsidae (2n = 50, XY). Finally, the results of our molecular phylogenetic analyses support the recognition of O. nickmayeri sp. nov. and shed light on previously unclear aspects of the biogeographical history of Ooperipatellus in Southern Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Lars Hering for his help with phylogenetic analyses, members of GM’s research group for their help with animal cultures and Vladimir Gross for proofreading the language. Two anonymous reviewers provided useful comments, which helped to improve the manuscript. The Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tasmania, Australia) is gratefully acknowledged for providing permits. This study was supported by grants from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq Brazil: 290029/2010-4) to ISO and the German Research Foundation (DFG: Ma 4147/3-1) to GM.

Authors contribution

ISO and GM conceived and designed the work and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. ISO performed the experiments. ISO and GM analysed the data, discussed the results, prepared and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Georg Mayer.

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Figure S1

Arrangement of dermal papillae along the dorsal midline in Ooperipatellus nickmayeri sp. nov. Scanning electron micrographs. In all images, the anterior orientation is at the top of the figure, with posterior at the bottom. (A) Overview of dorsal integument. Arrows point to pseudoplicae composed solely of accessory papillae. (B) Detail of the same image as in A, artificially coloured. Pseudoplicae are represented in purple, primary papillae in blue, and accessory papillae in orange. The pattern formed by primary and accessory papillae repeats along the entire dorsal midline (dotted line), irrespective of whether or not pseudoplicae are present. Abbreviations: ac, accessory papilla; pp., primary papilla. (GIF 723 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 9331 kb)

Figure S2

Phylogenetic relationships among representative onychophorans, including Ooperipatellus nickmayeri sp. nov. Maximum likelihood topology combining the 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA nucleotide sequences with translated amino acids of COI sequences. Four species of Peripatidae were used as outgroup taxa. Bootstrap values are provided above the branches. Asterisks indicate maximum bootstrap support values (=100). (GIF 53 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 186 kb)

Figure S3

Phylogenetic relationships among representative onychophorans, including Ooperipatellus nickmayeri sp. nov. Maximum likelihood topology combining the 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA nucleotide sequences with COI nucleotide sequences. Four species of Peripatidae were used as outgroup taxa. Bootstrap values are provided above the branches. Asterisks indicate maximum bootstrap support values (=100). (GIF 53 kb)

High resolution image (TIFF 187 kb)

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Oliveira, I.S., Mayer, G. A new giant egg-laying onychophoran (Peripatopsidae) reveals evolutionary and biogeographical aspects of Australian velvet worms. Org Divers Evol 17, 375–391 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-016-0321-3

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Keywords

  • Biogeography
  • Onychophora
  • Ooperipatellus
  • Peripatopsidae
  • Tasmania