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Uncovering the hidden diversity of the Neotropical butterfly genus Yphthimoides Forster (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): description of three new species based on morphological and molecular data


Three new species belonging to the butterflies satyrine subtribe Euptychiina are described: (1) Yphthimoides gabriela n. sp. occurring in low to medium altitudes in the coastal forests between the states of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, (2) Yphthimoides bella n. sp., from Brazilian Cerrado savannas, known from only two localities in the State of Goiás, and (3) Yphthimoides iserhardi n. sp., occurring in high altitudes in the rocky outcrops of Chapada Diamantina, in the interior of the Bahia state. Descriptions are based on wing shape, wing pattern, and morphology of male genitalia. Furthermore, molecular data from the “DNA barcode” (Cytochrome C Oxidase I, ca. 658 bp) was obtained and used to validate the three new species. Additionally, information about geographic distribution and habitat for the three new species is provided, and the systematic position of each of the three species is discussed based on a molecular analysis using another 11 additional species of Yphthimoides.

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The authors would like to thank Keith Willmott and two anonymous reviewers for critically reading the manuscript. Thanks also to Blanca Huertas, Thamara Zacca, Ricardo Siewert, Gláucia Marconato, and Andreas Segerer for helping with the data from the material deposited at the BMNH, at the DZUP, and at the ZSM. Lucas Kaminski revised and made comments on the first drafts of the manuscript. The following people helped sending us material: Elaine C. Barbosa and Rodrigo N. Vasconcelos (Y. gabriela), Marcio Z. Cardoso and Paulo Enrique C. Peixoto (Y. iserhardi), and Lucas A. Kaminski and Junia Yasmin Oliveira Carrera (Y. bella). EPB acknowledges FAPESP (2012/03750-8) for a graduate fellowship. AKS thanks CAPES for a fellowship. AVLF thanks the Brazilian Research Council—CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) (fellowship 302585/2011-7), and the National Science Foundation (DEB-1256742). This publication is part of the following projects: (1) RedeLep “Rede Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Lepidópteros” SISBIOTA-Brasil/CNPq (563332/2010-7); (2) “Identificação Molecular de Biodiversidade de Invertebrados Terrestres” (Grant 564954/2010-1) included in the “Rede Nacional de Identificação Molecular da Biodiversidade—BR-BoL” (MCT/CNPq/FNDCT 50/2010); (3) BIOTA-FAPESP Program (2011/50225-3); and (4) the collaborative grant “Dimensions US-BIOTA São Paulo: A multidisciplinary framework for biodiversity prediction in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot”, US NSF, NASA, and FAPESP (grant 2013/50297-0).

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The research contained within this manuscript is in accordance with Brazilian laws.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to André V. L. Freitas.

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Barbosa, E.P., Silva, A.K., Paluch, M. et al. Uncovering the hidden diversity of the Neotropical butterfly genus Yphthimoides Forster (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): description of three new species based on morphological and molecular data. Org Divers Evol 15, 577–589 (2015).

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  • Atlantic forest
  • Cerrado
  • DNA barcode
  • Euptychiina
  • Species description
  • Integrative taxonomy