Does size matter? Comparative population genetics of two butterflies with different wingspans
- 246 Downloads
The dispersal ability of a species is central to its biology, affecting other processes like local adaptation, population and community dynamics, and genetic structure. Among the intrinsic, species-specific factors that affect dispersal ability in butterflies, wingspan was recently shown to explain a high amount of variance in dispersal ability. In this study, a comparative approach was adopted to test whether a difference in wingspan translates into a difference in population genetic structure. Two closely related butterfly species from subfamily Satyrinae, family Nymphalidae, which are similar with respect to all traits that affect dispersal ability except for wingspan, were studied. Melanitis leda (wingspan 60–80 mm) and Ypthima baldus (wingspan 30–40 mm) were collected from the same areas along the Western Ghats of southern India. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were used to test whether the species with a higher wingspan (M. leda) exhibited a more homogenous population genetic structure, as compared to a species with a shorter wingspan (Y. baldus). In all analyses, Y. baldus exhibited greater degree of population genetic structuring. This study is one of the few adopting a comparative approach to establish the relationship between traits that affect dispersal ability and population genetic structure.
KeywordsAmplified fragment length polymorphisms Butterflies Dispersal ability Population genetic structure Western Ghats Wingspan
The authors would like to thank Krushnamegh Kunte and Ullasa Kodandaramaiah for discussions on the manuscript, and Jahnavi Joshi for helping with the maps. We would also like to thank the forest departments of Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu for collection permits and the people who provided logistical support during field work: drivers (Sekar and Kumar), and field assistants at each collection site. This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India grant to KPK (Grant number: BT/24/NE/TBP/2010).
- Abràmoff, M. D., Magalhães, P. J., & Ram, S. J. (2004). Image processing with ImageJ. Biophotonics International, 11(7), 36–42.Google Scholar
- Billeter, R., Sedivy, I., & Diekotter, T. (2003). Distribution and dispersal patterns of the ringlet butterfly (Aphantopus hyperantus) in an agricultural landscape. Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH, 69, 45–55.Google Scholar
- Burke, R.J., Fitzsimmons, J.M., & Kerr, J.T. (2011). A mobility index for Canadian butterfly species based on naturalists’ knowledge. Biodiversity and Conservation, 1–23. doi: 10.1007/s10531-011-0088-y
- Chai, P., & Srygley, R.B. (1990). Predation and the flight, morphology, and temperature of neotropical rain-forest butterflies. American Naturalist.Google Scholar
- Dray, S., & Dufour, A.-B. (2007). The ade4 package: implementing the duality diagram for ecologists. Journal of Statistical Software, 22(4), 1–20.Google Scholar
- Groot, A. T., Classen, A., Inglis, O., Blanco, C. A., López, J., Jr., Téran Vargas, A., et al. (2011). Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexa. Molecular Ecology, 20(13), 2676–2692. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05129.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanski, I., & Gaggiotti, O. (Eds.). (2004). Ecology, genetics, and evolution of metapopulations. London: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
- He, T., Krauss, S. L., Lamont, B. B., Miller, B. P., & Enright, N. J. (2004). Long-distance seed dispersal in a metapopulation of Banksia hookeriana inferred from a population allocation analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism data. Molecular Ecology, 13(5), 1099–1109. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02120.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Irwin, D. E., Irwin, J. H., & Smith, T. B. (2011). Genetic variation and seasonal migratory connectivity in Wilson’s warblers (Wilsonia pusilla): species-level differences in nuclear DNA between western and eastern populations. Molecular Ecology, 20(15), 3102–3115. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05159.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kehimkar, I. (2008). The book of Indian butterflies. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society and Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lowe, A., Harris, S., & Ashton, P. (2004). Ecological genetics: design, analysis, and application. Book.Google Scholar
- Neve, G. (2009). Population genetics of butterflies. Ecology of butterflies in Europe.Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 7 July 2013.
- Salvato, P., Battisti, A., Concato, S., Masutti, L., Patarnello, T., & Zane, L. (2002). Genetic differentiation in the winter pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa-wilkinsoni complex), inferred by AFLP and mitochondrial DNA markers. Molecular Ecology, 11(11), 2435–2444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sekar, S., & Karanth, P. (2013). Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure. PLoS ONE.Google Scholar
- Thaler, R., Brandstätter, A., Meraner, A., Chabicovski, M., Parson, W., Zelger, R., et al. (2008). Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: II. AFLP analysis reflects human-aided local adaptation of a global pest species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 48(3), 838–849. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Whitlock, R., Hipperson, H., Mannarelli, M., Butlin, R. K., & Burke, T. (2008). An objective, rapid and reproducible method for scoring AFLP peak-height data that minimizes genotyping error. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8(4), 725–735. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2007.02073.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wynter-Blyth, M. A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society.Google Scholar