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Allopolyploid origin of the Balkan endemic Ranunculus wettsteinii (Ranunculaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequences

Abstract

The Balkan Peninsula, characterized by high rates of endemism, is recognised as one of the most diverse and species-rich areas of Europe. However, little is known about the origin of Balkan endemics. The present study addresses the phylogenetic position of the Balkan endemic Ranunculus wettsteinii, as well as its taxonomic status and relationship with the widespread R. parnassiifolius, based on nuclear DNA (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and plastid regions (rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnQ, trnK-matK and ycf6-psbM). Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses revealed a well-supported clade formed by accessions of R. wettsteinii. Furthermore, our phylogenetic and network analyses supported previous hypotheses of a likely allopolyploid origin for R. wettsteinii between R. montenegrinus and R. parnassiifolius, with the latter as the maternal parent.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Emilio Cano for laboratory assistance and Bernardo García for helping with the sampling. We would like to thank three anonymous reviewers for useful comments that improved the manuscript. Part of this work was conducted during a short stay of E. Cires at Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (CSIC) funded partially by the University of Oviedo (V20090232). This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science (CGL2006-11743).

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Appendix

Appendix

Plant materials, voucher information and GenBank accessions for DNA sequences used in this paper. Sequences directly retrieved from GenBank are in italics. Systematics of Ranunculus parnassiifolius is based on Cires et al. (2012).

Ranunculus taxa (population code); Locality; Ploidy Level; Collector; Collection number and herbarium; ITS GenBank no.; rpl32-trnL GenBank no.; trnQ-rps16 GenBank no.; trnK-matK GenBank no.; ycf6-psbM GenBank no.
Ficaria verna Huds. (=R. ficaria L.); (1); Villaviciosa (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; J.A. Fernández Prieto & J. Homet 31967 (FCO); JX025227; JX025320; JX025282; KF528859; KF528890. Ranunculus aconitifolius L.; (1); Somiedo (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31859 (FCO); JX025228; JX025321; JX025283; KF528860; KF528891. R. amplexicaulis L.; (1); Portillo de las Yeguas (Cantabria, Spain); 2n = 2x; A. Bueno & E. Cires 31962 (FCO); JX025229; JX025322; JX025284; KF528861; KF528892. (2); Somiedo (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31963 (FCO); JX025230; JX025323; JX025285; KF528862; KF528893. R. cabrerensis Rothm.; (1); Abelgas de Luna (León, Spain); 2n = 2x; C. Cuesta & E. Cires 31368 (FCO); JX025237; JX025328; JX025290; KF528863; KF528894. (2); Lago de la Baña (León, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires, B. Jiménez-Alfaro & L. González 31369 (FCO); JX025234; JX025327; JX025289; KF528864; KF528895. (3); Portillo de las Yeguas (Cantabria, Spain); 2n = 2x; A. Bueno & E. Cires 31371 (FCO); JX025239; JX025330; JX025292; KF528865; KF528896. R. cabrerensis subsp. muniellensis (Bueno, Fern. Casado & Fern. Prieto) Fern. Prieto & Cires; (1); Muniellos Biosphere Reserve (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires 31370 (FCO); JX025271; JX025350; JX025312; KF528866; KF528897. R. gramineus L.; (1); Somiedo (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31968 (FCO); JX025232; JX025325; JX025287; KF528867; KF528898. R. montenegrinus Lindtner; (1); Dinibeg (Sar Planina, Macedonia); 2n = 4x; M. Baltisberger no. 12258 (Z/ZT); KF528832; KF528841; KF528850; KF528868; KF528899. (2); Kom Kucki (Komovi, Montenegro), 2n = 5x; M. Baltisberger no. 11444 (Z/ZT); KF528833; KF528842; KF528851; KF528869; KF528900. (3); Mali Titov Vrv (Sar Planina, Macedonia); 2n = 4x; M. Baltisberger no. 12269 (Z/ZT); KF528834; KF528843; KF528852; KF528870; KF528901. R. parnassiifolius subsp. favargeri P. Küpfer; (1); Somiedo (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 4x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31103 (FCO); JX025247; JX025335; JX025297; KF528871; KF528902. (2); Jou de los Boches (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; A. Fernández & E. Cires 31105 (FCO); JX025266; JX025346; JX025308; KF528872; KF528903. (3); La Canalona (Cantabria, Spain); 2n = 2x; A. Fernández & E. Cires 31107 (FCO); JX025263; JX025344; JX025306; KF528873; KF528904. (4); Pandébano (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; A. Fernández & E. Cires 31115 (FCO); JX025268; JX025347; JX025309; KF528874; KF528905. (5); Urriellu (Asturias, Spain); 2n = 2x; A. Fernández & E. Cires 31117 (FCO); JX025270; JX025349; JX025311; KF528875; KF528906. R. parnassiifolius subsp. heterocarpus P. Küpfer; (1); Albulapass (Graubünden, Switzerland); 2n = 4x; C. Cuesta, E. Cires, M. Ceballos & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31353 (FCO); JX025243; JX025332; JX025294; KF528876; KF528907. (2); Cortina d'Ampezzo (Belluno, Italy); 2n = 4x; C. Cuesta, E. Cires, M. Ceballos & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31354 (FCO); JX025245; JX025334; JX025296; KF528877; KF528908. (3); Grand Chavalard (Valais, Switzerland); 2n = 4x; C. Cuesta, E. Cires, M. Ceballos & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31366 (FCO); JX025241; JX025331; JX025293; KF528878; KF528909. R. parnassiifolius subsp. parnassiifolius L.; (1); Col d’Arlas (Aquitaine, France); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31355 (FCO); JX025265; JX025345; JX025307; KF528879; KF528910. (2); Chisagües (Huesca, Spain); 2n = 4x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31360 (FCO); JX025253; JX025339; JX025301; KF528880; KF528911. R. pyrenaeus L.; (1); Chisagües (Huesca, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31971 (FCO); JX025276; JX025353; JX025315; KF528881; KF528912. (2); Pas de la Casa (Encamp, Andorra); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31372 (FCO); JX025277; JX025354; JX025316; KF528882; KF528913. (3); Fontalba (Gerona, Spain); 2n = 2x; E. Cires & J.A. Fernández Prieto 31972 (FCO); JX025278; JX025355; JX025317; KF528883; KF528914. R. seguieri Vill.; (1); M. Vettore, (NE of Rome, C Italy); 2n = 2x; M. Baltisberger no. 12857 (Z/ZT); KF528835; KF528844; KF528853; KF528884; KF528915. (2); Feltre, (E of Trento, N Italy); 2n = 2x; M. Baltisberger no. 12056 (Z/ZT); KF528836; KF528845; KF528854; KF528885; KF528916. R. wettsteinii Dörfl.; (1, identified as R. parnassiifolius from the Balkan Peninsula by M. Baltisberger); Kula Ziberit (Korab, Albania-Macedonia); 2n = 4x; M. Baltisberger no. 12421 (Z/ZT); KF528837; KF528846; KF528855; KF528886; KF528917. (2, identified as R. parnassiifolius from the Balkan Peninsula by M. Baltisberger); Kula Ziberit (Korab, Albania-Macedonia); 2n = 4x; M. Baltisberger s.n.; KF528838; KF528847; KF528856; KF528887; KF528918. (3, identified as R. wettsteinii from the Balkan Peninsula by M. Baltisberger); Kula Ziberit (Korab, Albania-Macedonia); 2n = 4x; M. Baltisberger no. 12426 (Z/ZT); KF528839; KF528848; KF528857; KF528888; KF528919. (4, identified as R. wettsteinii from the Balkan Peninsula by M. Baltisberger); Kula Ziberit (Korab, Albania-Macedonia); 2n = 4x; M. Baltisberger s.n.; KF528840; KF528849; KF528858; KF528889; KF528920.

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Cires, E., Baltisberger, M., Cuesta, C. et al. Allopolyploid origin of the Balkan endemic Ranunculus wettsteinii (Ranunculaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequences. Org Divers Evol 14, 1–10 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-013-0150-6

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Keywords

  • Balkan Peninsula
  • Internal transcribed spacer
  • Plastid DNA
  • Ranunculus
  • Species trees
  • Systematic