Organisms Diversity & Evolution

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 201–236 | Cite as

Interactive 3D anatomy and affinities of the Hyalogyrinidae, basal Heterobranchia (Gastropoda) with a rhipidoglossate radula

  • Gerhard Haszprunar
  • Erika Speimann
  • Andreas Hawe
  • Martin Heß
Original Article

Abstract

Whereas Hyalogyrina Marshall, 1988 was originally considered a skeneid vetigastropod, the family Hyalogyrinidae Warén & Bouchet, 1993 has later been classified as basal Heterobranchia despite their rhipidoglossate radula. In order to evaluate this placement and to shed more light on the origin of all higher Gastropoda, we investigated five representatives of all three nominal hyalogyrinid genera by means of semithin serial sectioning and computer-aided 3D reconstruction of the respective anatomy, which we present in an interactive way. In general the morphological features (shell, external morphology, anatomy) fully confirm the placement of Hyalogyrinidae in the Heterobranchia, but in particular the conditions of the genital system vary substantially within the family. The ectobranch gill of Hyalogyrinidae is shared with Valvatidae, Cornirostridae, and Xylodisculidae; consequently all these families are united in Ectobranchia Fischer, 1884. The rhipidoglossate hyalogyrinid radula suggests independent acquisition of taenioglossate radulae in the Caenogastropoda and other Ectobranchia. Therefore, the origin of the Heterobranchia—and thus of all higher gastropods—looks to have taken place already on the rhipidoglossate, i.e. the ‘archaeogastropod’, level of evolution. Ectobranchia are considered the first extant offshoot of the Heterobranchia; implications for the stem species of the latter are outlined.

Keywords

Gastropoda Ectobranchia Hyalogyrinidae Interactive 3D anatomy Systematics Phylogeny Heterobranchia 

Supplementary material

13127_2011_48_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (4.5 mb)
Figure 23D Reconstruction of Xenoskenea pellucida and interactive 3D Model. (PDF 4645 kb)
13127_2011_48_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (5.9 mb)
Figure 7The interactive 3D-model of Hyaloyrina depressa can be accessed by clicking into Fig. 7 (Adobe Reader Version 7 or higher required). Rotate model by dragging with left mouse button pressed, shift model: same action + ctrl, zoom: use mouse wheel (or change default action for left mouse button). Select or deselect (or change transparency of) components in the model tree, switch between prefab views or change surface visualization (e.g. lightning, render mode, crop etc.). (PDF 6051 kb)
13127_2011_48_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (4.4 mb)
Figure 14The interactive 3D-model of Hyaloyrina grasslei can be accessed by clicking into Fig. 14 (Adobe Reader Version 7 or higher required). Rotate model by dragging with left mouse button pressed, shift model: same action + ctrl, zoom: use mouse wheel (or change default action for left mouse button). Select or deselect (or change transparency of) components in the model tree, switch between prefab views or change surface visualization (e.g. lightning, render mode, crop etc.). (PDF 4466 kb)
13127_2011_48_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (4.9 mb)
Figure 183D Reconstruction of Hyalogyrina glabra and interactive 3D Model. (PDF 5052 kb)

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Copyright information

© Gesellschaft für Biologische Systematik 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Haszprunar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erika Speimann
    • 2
  • Andreas Hawe
    • 2
  • Martin Heß
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoologische Staatssammlung MünchenMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department Biology I and GeoBio-CenterLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenPlanegg-MartinsriedGermany

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