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Epigenetic effects of the pregnancy Mediterranean diet adherence on the offspring metabolic syndrome markers

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Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults. Similarly, the Mediterranean diet could have a similar action during pregnancy, protecting the fetus against the development of MS throughout life. This review assembles studies carried out, both in animals and humans, on the epigenetic modifications associated with the consumption, during pregnancy, of Mediterranean diet main components. The relationship between these modifications and the occurrence of factors involved in development of MS is also explained. In addition, the results of our group relating adherence to the Mediterranean diet with MS markers are discussed. The paper ends suggesting future actuation lines in order to increase knowledge on Mediterranean diet adherence as a prevention tool of MS development.

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Abbreviations

ALA:

Alpha-linolenic acid

CVD:

Cardiovascular disease

11βHD2:

11-β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

DNMT:

Dinucleotide methyltransferase

FFA:

Free fatty acids

HDLc:

Cholesterol transported by high-density lipoproteins

HOMA-IR:

Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance

Hcys:

Homocysteine

HDAC:

Histone deacetylase

IGF:

Insulin-like growth factor

IR:

Insulin resistance

IUGR:

Restricted intrauterine growth

MDA:

Mediterranean diet adherence

MS:

Metabolic syndrome

MUFA:

Monounsaturated fatty acids

PCK:

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PGC1:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator

RXRα:

Retinoid X receptor α

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

SAH:

S-Adenosylhomocysteine

SAM:

S-Adenosylmethionine

SCFA:

Short-chain fatty acids

SFA:

Saturated fatty acid content

T2DM:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

TG:

Triglycerides

TLR:

Toll-like receptors

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Acknowledgements

The paper has been partially supported by the Project AGL 2014-53207-C2-2R.

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Correspondence to Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz.

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Lorite Mingot, D., Gesteiro, E., Bastida, S. et al. Epigenetic effects of the pregnancy Mediterranean diet adherence on the offspring metabolic syndrome markers. J Physiol Biochem 73, 495–510 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13105-017-0592-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13105-017-0592-y

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