Skip to main content

Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Interventions as a Form of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation



The current study presents a systematic review of the evidence for mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation, a holistic approach to treatment that may be particularly well suited to persons with neurological illness and injury.


Following the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we included controlled trials of MBIs conducted in a neurological population, specifically employing the practice of mindfulness meditation. A search protocol for CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and PubMed was executed by three of the authors in September 2019 to promote reliability and obtain the initial list of abstracts (n = 32). Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data from each of the final 32 articles.


The most frequent diagnoses of interest were various forms of late-life cognitive decline and ADHD, followed by acquired brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and epilepsy. Most trials assessing psychological variables found significant benefits of MBIs across various symptoms, including fatigue, self-reported cognitive function, and specific neurological symptoms. Most studies investigating cognitive and/or neural outcomes found significant benefits as well. Positive findings were evident across different patient populations.


There is promising evidence to support the application of MBIs for the amelioration of clinical-neuropsychological symptoms in the neurorehabilitation context, particularly for persons with ADHD and late-life cognitive decline. Further work is needed to clarify the importance of tailoring, as well as whether taking a transdiagnostic approach to symptoms would enhance the capacity to measure significant effects.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


*Those with an asterisk are the articles included in the systematic review.

  • *Advocat, J., Enticott, J., Vandenberg, B., Hassed, C., Hester, J., & Russell, G. (2016). The effects of a mindfulness-based lifestyle program for adults with Parkinson’s disease: A mixed methods, wait list controlled randomised control study. BMC Neurology, 16(166). doi:

  • Babikian, T., Merkley, T., Savage, R. C., Giza, C. C., & Levin, H. (2015). Chronic aspects of pediatric traumatic brain injury: Review of the literature. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32, 1849–1860.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Bachmann, K., Lam, A. P., Söros, P., Kanat, M., Hoxhaj, E., Matthies, S., Feige, B., Muller, H., Ozyurt, J., Thiel, C. M., & Philipsen, A. (2018). Effects of mindfulness and psychoeducation on working memory in adult ADHD: A randomised, controlled fMRI study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 106, 47-56.

  • *Bay, E., & Chan, R. R. (2019). Mindfulness-based versus health promotion group therapy after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 57, 26-33.

  • * Bédard, M., Felteau, M., Mazmanian, D., Fedyk, K., Klein, R., Richardson, J., Parkinson, W., & Minthorn-Biggs, M.-B. (2003). Pilot evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve quality of life among individuals who sustained traumatic brain injuries. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25, 722-731.

  • * Bédard, M., Felteau, M., Marshall, S., Cullen, N., Gibbons, C., Dubois, S., Maxwell, H., Mazmanian, D., Weaver, B., Rees, L., Gainer, R., Klein, R., & Moustgaard, A. (2014). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces symptoms of depression in people with a traumatic brain injury: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29, E13-E22.

  • Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z. V., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology Science & Practice, 11, 230–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Bogosian, A., Chadwick, P., Windgassen, S., Norton, S., McCrone, P., Mosweu, I., Silber, E., & Moss-Morris, R. (2015). Distress improves after mindfulness training for progressive MS: A pilot randomised trial. Multiple Sclerosis, 21, 1184-1194.

  • *Bogosian, A., Hughes, A., Norton, S., Silber, E., & Moss-Morris, R. (2016). Potential treatment mechanisms in a mindfulness-based intervention for people with progressive multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 859-880.

  • Britton, W. (2014). The dark knight of the soul. The Atlantic. Retrieved August 20, 2020 from

  • *Bueno, V. F., Kozasa, E. H., da Silva, M. A., Alves, T. M., Louzã, M. R., & Pompéia, S. (2015). Mindfulness meditation improves mood, quality of life, and attention in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. BioMed Research International, Article ID 962857. doi:

  • Caplan, B., Bogner, J., Brenner, L., Beadle, E. J., Ownsworth, T., Fleming, J., & Shum, D. (2016). The impact of traumatic brain injury on self-identity: A systematic review of the evidence for self-concept changes. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31, E12–E25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cascaes da Silva, F., da Rosa Iop, R., Domingos dos Santos, P., Aguiar Bezerra de Melo, L. M., Barbosa Gutierres Filho, P. J., & da Silva, R. (2016). Effects of physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs on the quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 24(3), 484-496.

  • Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chambless, D. L., Baker, M. J., Baucom, D. H., Beutler, L. E., Calhoun, K. S., Crits-Christoph, P., Daiuto, A., DeRubeis, R. J., Detweiler, J., Haaga, D., Bennett Johnson, S., McCurry, S. M., Mueser, K., Pope, K. S., Sanderson, W. C., Shoham, V., Stickle, T., Williams, D. A., & Woody, S. R. (1998). Update on empirically validated therapies II. Clinical Psychology, 51, 3–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, A. (2006). Dialectical behavior therapy: Current indications and unique elements. Psychiatry, 3, 62–68.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chin, J. H., & Vora, N. (2014). The global burden of neurologic diseases. Neurology, 83, 349–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cicerone, K. D., Langenbahn, D. M., Braden, C., Malec, J. F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., Felicetti, T., Laatsch, L., Harley, J. P., Bergquist, T., Azulay, J., Cantor, J., & Ashman, T. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 92, 519–530.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cicerone, K. D., Goldin, Y., Ganci, K., Rosenbaum, A., Wethe, J. V., Langenbahn, D. M., Malec, J. F., Bergquist, T. F., Kingsley, K., Nagele, D., Trexler, L., Fraas, M., Bogdanova, Y., & Harley, J. P. (2019). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Systematic review of the literature from 2009 through 2014. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 100, 1515–1533.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clare, L., & Woods, R. T. (2004). Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease: A review. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 14, 385–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crosson, B., Barco, P. P., Velozo, C. A., Bolesta, M. M., Cooper, P., Werts, D., & Brobeck, T. C. (1989). Awareness and compensation in postacute head injury rehabilitation. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 4, 46–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dissanayaka, N. N. W., IduJion, F., Pachana, N. A., O’Sullivan, J. D., Marsh, R., Byrne, G. J., & Harnett, P. (2016). Mindfulness for motor and nonmotor dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s Disease.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • *Edel, M.-A., Hölter, T., Wassink, K., & Juckel, G. (2017). A comparison of mindfulness-based group training and skills group training in adults with ADHD: An open study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 21, 533-539.

  • Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Sommer, T., Raz, A., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 340–347.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flehmig, H. C., Steinborn, M., Langner, R., Anja, S., & Westhoff, K. (2007). Assessing intraindividual variability in sustained attention: Re-liability, relation to speed and accuracy, and practice effects. Psychology Science, 49, 132–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, C. R., Nijeboer, S., Dixon, M. L., Floman, J. L., Ellamil, M., Rumak, S. P., Sedlmeier, P., & Christoff, K. (2014). Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 48–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fox, C. R., Dixon, M. L., Nijeboer, S., Girn, M., Floman, J. L., Lifshitz, M., Ellamil, M., Sedlmeier, P., & Christoff, K. (2016). Functional neuroanatomy of meditation: A review and meta-analysis of 78 functional neuroimaging investigations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 65, 208–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gates, N. J., & March, E. G. (2016). A neuropsychologist’s guide to undertaking a systematic review for publication: Making the most of PRISMA Guidelines. Neuropsychology Review, 26, 109–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldberg, S. B., Tucker, R. P., Greene, P. A., Davidson, R. J., Wampold, B. E., Kearney, D. J., & Simpson, T. L. (2018). Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 59, 52–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Grossman, P., Kappos, L., Gensicke, H., D’Souza, M., Mohr, D. C., Penner, I. K., & Steiner, C. (2010). MS quality of life, depression, and fatigue improve after mindfulness training: a randomized trial. Neurology, 75, 1141-1149.

  • *Gu, Y., Xu, G., & Zhu, Y. (2018). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for college students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22, 388-399.

  • Hart, T., Dijkers, M. P., Whyte, J., Turkstra, L. S., Zanca, J. M., Packel, A., Van Stan, J., Ferraro, M., & Chen, C. (2019). A theory-driven system for the specification of rehabilitation treatments. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 100, 172–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Hoxhaj, E., Sadohara, C., Borel, P., D’Amelio, R., Sobanski, E., Muller, H., Feige, B., Matthies, S. & Philipsen, A. (2018). Mindfulness vs. psychoeducation in adult ADHD: A randomized controlled trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 268, 321-335.

  • Jensen, C. G., Vangkilde, S., Frokjaer, V., & Hasselbalch, S. G. (2012). Mindfulness training affects attention – Or is it attentional effort? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 106–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • * Johansson, B., Bjuhr, H., & Rönnbäck, L. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) improves long-term mental fatigue after stroke or traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 26, 13-14.

  • * Johansson, B., Bjuhr, H., Karlsson, M., Karlsson, J.-O., & Rönnbäck, L. (2015). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) delivered live on the internet to individuals suffering from mental fatigue after an acquired brain injury. Mindfulness, 6, 1356-1365.

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living (revised ed.): Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. Bantam.

  • Koerner, K., & Dimeff, L. A. (2007). Overview of dialectical behavior therapy. In L. A. Dimeff & K. Koerner (Eds.), Dialectical behavior therapy in clinical practice: Applications across disorders and settings (pp. 1–18). Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • *Larouche, E., Hudon, C., & Goulet, S. (2019). Mindfulness mechanisms and psychological effects for aMCI patients: A comparison with psychoeducation. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 34, 93-104.

  • Lawrence, M., Booth, J., Mercer, S., & Crawford, E. (2013). A systematic review of the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions following transient ischemic attack and stroke. International Journal of Stroke, 8(6), 465–474. PMID: 23879751.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lilienfeld, S. O., Lynn, S. J., & Lohr, J. M. (2003). Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology. Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linehan, M. M. (2014). DBT Training Manual. Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lustyk, M. K., Chawla, N., Nolan, R. S., & Marlatt, G. A. (2009). Mindfulness meditation research: Issues of participant screening, safety procedures, and researcher training. Advances in Mind Body Medicine, 24, 20–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ma, V. Y., Chan, L., & Carruthers, K. J. (2014). Incidence, prevalence, costs, and impact on disability of common conditions requiring rehabilitation in the United States: Stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, limb loss, and back pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95, P986–P995.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maher, C. G., Sherrington, C., Herbert, R. D., Moseley, A. M., & Elkins, M. (2003). Reliability of the PEDro scale forrating quality of randomized controlled trials. Physical Therapy, 83, 713–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McLean, G., Lawrence, M., Simpson, R., & Mercer, S. W. (2017). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review. BMC Neurology, 17(1), 92.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • * McMillan, T. M., Robertson, I. H., Brock, D., & Chorlton, L. (2002). Brief mindfulness training for attentional problems after traumatic brain injury: A randomised control treatment trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 117-125.

  • *Mitchell, J. T., McIntyre, E. M., English, J. S., Dennis, M. F., Beckham, J. C., & Kollins, S. H. (2017). A pilot trial of mindfulness meditation training for ADHD in adulthood: Impact on core symptoms, executive functioning, and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Attention Disorders, 21, 1105-1120.

  • *Pickut, B. A., Van Hecke, W., Kerckhofs, E., Mariën, P., Vanneste, S., Cras, P., & Parizel, P. M. (2013). Mindfulness based intervention in Parkinson’s disease leads to structural brain changes on MRI: A randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 115, 2419-2425.

  • * Pickut, B., Vanneste, S., Hirsch, M. A., Van Hecke, W., Kerckhofs, E., Marien, P., Parizel, P. M., Crosiers, D., & Cras, P. (2015). Mindfulness training among individuals with Parkinson’s disease: Neurobehavioral effects. Parkinson’s Disease, Article ID 816404.

  • Prigatano, G. P., & Schacter, D. L. (Eds.). (1991). Awareness of deficit after brain injury: Clinical and theoretical issues. Oxford University Press.

  • *Quintana-Hernández, D. J., Miró-Barrachina, M. T., Ibáñez-Fernández, I. J., Santana-del Pino, A., Quintana-Montesdeoca, M. P., Rodriguez-de Vera, B., Morales-Casanova, D., Del Carmen Perez-Vieitez, M., Rodriguez-Garcia, J., & Bravo-Caraduje, N. (2016). Mindfulness in the maintenance of cognitive capacities in Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 50, 217-232.

  • *Rodgers, S. H., Schutze, R., Gasson, N., Anderson, R. A., Kane, R. T., Starkstein, S., Morgan-Lowes, K. & Egan, S. J. (2019). Modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: A pilot trial. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 47, 446-461.

  • Schardt, C., Adams, M. B., Owens, T., Keitz, S., & Fontelo, P. (2007). Utilization of the PICO framework to improvesearching PubMed for clinical questions. BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making, 15, 7:16.

  • *Schoenberg, P. L. A., Hepark, S., Kan, C. C., Barendregt, H. P., Buitelaar, J. K., & Speckens, A. E. M. (2014). Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology, 125, 1407-1416.

  • Schumi, J., & Witts, J. T. (2011). Through the looking glass: Understanding non-inferiority. Trials, 12, 106.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmerman, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 1139–1171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Segal, Z., Williams, M., & Teasdale, J. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression (2nd Ed.). Guilford.

  • Shiffman, S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 1–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Simpson, R., Mair, F. S., & Mercer, S. W. (2017). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis – A feasibility randomised controlled trial. BMC Neurology, 17, 94.

  • Smart, C. M. (2019). The role of mindfulness in neurorehabilitation: From the monastery to the clinic. In C. L. Armstrong & L. A. Morrow (Eds.), Handbook of medical neuropsychology: Applications of cognitive neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 749–788). Springer.

  • *Smart, C. M., & Segalowitz, S. J. (2017). Respond, don’t react: The influence of mindfulness training on performance monitoring in older adults. Cognitive Affective Behavioral Neuroscience, 17, 1151-1163.

  • * Smart, C. M., Segalowitz, S. J., Mulligan, B. P., Koudys J., & Gawryluk J. R. (2016). Mindfulness training for older adults with subjective cognitive decline: Results from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 52, 757-774.

  • Spencer, T., Aldous, S., Williams, G., & Fahey, M. (2018). Systematic review of high-level mobility training in people with a neurological impairment. Brain Injury, 32(4), 403–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2015–2028.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Tang, V., Poon, W. S., & Kwan, P. (2015). Mindfulness-based therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy: An assessor-blinded randomized trial. Neurology, 85, 1100-1107.

  • Tate, R. L., Perdices, M., Rosenkoetter, U., Shadish, W., Vohra, S., Barlow, D. H., Horner, R., Kazdin, A., Kratochwill, T., McDonald, S., Sampson, M., Shamseer, L., Togher, L., Albin, R., Backman, C., Douglas, J., Evans, J. J., Gast, D., Manolov, R., & Wilson, B. (2016). The Single-Case Reporting Guideline In BEhavioural Interventions (SCRIBE) 2016 Statement. Physical Therapy, 96, e1–e10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Tavee, J., Rensel, M., Planchon, S. M., Butler, R. S., & Stone, L. (2011). Effects of meditation on pain and quality of life in multiple sclerosis and peripheral neuropathy: A pilot study. International Journal of MS Care, 13, 163-168.

  • *Thompson, N. J., Walker, E. R., Obolensky, N., Winning, A., Barmon, C., Dilorio, C., & Compton, M. T. (2010). Distance delivery of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Project UPLIFT. Epilepsy & Behavior, 19, 247-254.

  • * Thompson, N. J., Patel, A. H., Selwa, L. M., Stoll, S. C., Begley, C. E., Johnson, E. K., & Fraser, R. T. (2015). Expanding the efficacy of Project UPLIFT: Distance delivery of mindfulness-based depression prevention to people with epilepsy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 304-313.

  • Ulrichsen, K. M., Kaufmann, T., Dorum, E. S., Kolskar, K. K., Richard, G., Alnaes, D., Arnberg, T. J., Westlye, L. T., & Nordvik, J. E. (2016). Clinical utility of mindfulness training in the treatment of fatigue after stroke, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 912.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., Meissner, T., Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Gorchov, J., Fox, K. C. R., Field, B. A., Britton, W. B., Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., & Meyer, D. E. (2018). Mind the hype: A critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 36–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vanderbeken, I., & Kerckhofs, E. (2017). A systematic review of the effect of physical exercise on cognition in stroke and traumatic brain injury patients. NeuroRehabilitation, 40, 33–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Stan, J. H., Dijkers, M. P., Whyte, J., Hart, T., Turkstra, L. S., Zanca, J. M., & Chen, C. (2019). The rehabilitation treatment specification system: Implications for improvements in research design, reporting, replication, and synthesis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 100, 146–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Wells, R. E., Kerr, C. E., Wolkin, J., Dossett, M., Davis, R. B., Walsh, J., Wall, R., Kong, J., Kaptchuk, T., Press, D., Phillips, R. S., & Yeh, G. (2013). Meditation for adults with mild cognitive impairment: A pilot randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 61, 642-645.

  • Wells, R. E., Yeh, G. Y., Kerr, C. E., Wolkin, J., Davis, R. B., Tan, Y., Spaeth, R., Wall, R. B., Walsh, J., Kaptchuk, T. J., Press, D., Phillips, R. S., & Kong, J. (2015). Meditation’s impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: A pilot study. Neuroscience Letters, 556, 15–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • *Wetherell, J. L., Hershey, T., Hickman, S., Tate, S. R., Dixon, D., Bower, E. S., & Lenze, E. J. (2017). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults with stress disorders and neurocognitive difficulties: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 78, e734-e743.

  • Wilson, B. A. (2013). Neuropsychological rehabilitation: State of the science. South African Journal of Psychology, 43(3), 267–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, B. A. (2017). The development of neuropsychological rehabilitation: An historical examination of theoretical and practical issues. In B. A. Wilson, J. Winegardner, C. M. van Heugten, & T. Ownsworth (Eds.), Neuropsychological rehabilitation: The international handbook (pp. 6–16). Routledge.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, B. A., & Betteridge, S. (2019). Essentials of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wimo, A., Guerchet, M., Ali, G.-C., Wu, Y.-T., Prina, A. M., Winblad, B., Jönsson, L., Liu, Z., & Prince, M. (2017). The worldwide costs of dementia 2015 and comparisons with 2010. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 13, 1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, K., Lawrence, M., Jani, B., Simpson, R., & Mercer, S. W. (2017). Mindfulness-based interventions in epilepsy: A systematic review. BMC Neurology, 17(1), 52.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Yamada, Y. (2018). How to crack pre-registration: Toward transparent and open science. Frontiers in Psychology.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Zylowska, L., Ackerman, D. L., Yang, M. H., Futrell, J. L., Horton, N. I., Hale, T. S., Pataki, C., & Smalley, S. L. (2008). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11, 737–746.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



CMS: conceptualized the systematic review, contributed to the generation of the automated search protocol, independently conducted the automated search protocol and manual retrieval of relevant primary source articles, contributed to the selection of the final sample of eligible source articles, performed study quality ratings for a portion of said source articles (with the exception of those she co-authored), and wrote the bulk of the paper. JIA: contributed to the generation of the automated search protocol, independently conducted the automated search protocol, contributed to the extraction of data from candidate articles, contributed to the selection of the final sample of eligible source articles, performed study quality ratings for a portion of said source articles, and contributed to the revisions for this paper. KS: contributed to the generation of the automated search protocol, independently conducted the automated search protocol, contributed to the extraction of data from candidate articles, contributed to the selection of the final sample of eligible source articles, performed study quality ratings for a portion of said source articles, and contributed to the revisions for this paper. JV: contributed to the generation of the automated search protocol, independently conducted the automated search protocol, contributed to the extraction of data from candidate articles, contributed to the selection of the final sample of eligible source articles, and performed study quality ratings for a portion of said source articles.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Colette M. Smart.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

As a secondary analysis of previously published work, the current systematic review was not considered to require an institutional ethics review. Given that the referenced articles, Smart et al. (2016) and Smart and Segalowitz (2017), were performed by the first author, we may attest that all procedures performed for these studies were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The remaining referenced articles each reported that institutional ethical approval was obtained for their study.

Conflict of Interest

The first author has a book that has recently come out that is based on two articles referenced in this review (Smart & Segalowitz, 2017; Smart et al., 2016). The book involves the publication of the mindfulness treatment manual used in these studies. Because of this potential conflict, all study quality ratings for the systematic review were done blind to the first author and completed by the other three authors.

Additional information

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 36 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Smart, C.M., Ali, J.I., Viczko, J. et al. Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Interventions as a Form of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Mindfulness 13, 301–317 (2022).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Mindfulness; Brain injury; Stroke; Dementia; ADHD; Rehabilitation