A Network Modeling Approach to Mindfulness Mechanisms: a Proof-of-Concept Investigation

Abstract

Objectives

In contrast to theory, most extant research has not investigated mindfulness mechanisms as dynamic system(s) of processes nor via measurement with high temporal and contextual resolution in participants’ real-world environment.

Methods

Accordingly, as an initial proof of concept approach, we applied a network analysis methodology to experience sampling data twice daily of 10 risk and protective processes of interest, pre- and post-mindfulness training (3-week, 6-session intervention) among 82 meditation-naive adults.

Results

First, we found changes in the network post-relative to pre-intervention, including the emergence or strengthening of key network pathways (e.g., willingness, positive affect) as well as the pruning or weakening of pathways (e.g., negative affect, depressed/anxious mood). Second, relatedly, we found that negative affect was less functionally central at post- versus pre-intervention.

Conclusions

Findings suggest theoretically and clinically important changes in the functional connectivity of a network of mindfulness mechanisms and related processes following a mindfulness intervention. This proof of concept study and its findings are discussed with respect to the emerging study of mindfulness mechanisms as a dynamic system or network.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Alsubaie, M., Abbott, R., Dunn, B., Dickens, C., Keil, T. F., Henley, W., & Kuyken, W. (2017). Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in people with physical and/or psychological conditions: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 55, 74–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2017.04.008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Armour, C., Fried, E. I., Deserno, M. K., Tsai, J., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2016). A network analysis of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and correlates in US military veterans. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 45, 49–59.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Baer, R. A. (2015). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. Berlin: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(6), 893–897. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Bernstein, A., & Brantz, H. (2013). Tolerance of negative affective states (TNAS): Development and evaluation of a novel construct and measure. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 421–433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9471-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bolger, N., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2013). Intensive longitudinal methods: An introduction to diary and experience sampling research. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(4), 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. van Borkulo, C. D., Boschloo, L., Kossakowski, J., Tio, P., Schoevers, R. A., Borsboom, D., & Waldorp, L. J. (2016). Comparing network structures on three aspects: A permutation test. Manuscript submitted for publication (p. 24).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. l. O. J. (2013). Network analysis: An integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 91–121.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Borsboom, D., Fried, E. I., Epskamp, S., Waldorp, L. J., van Borkulo, C. D., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2017). False alarm? A comprehensive reanalysis of “evidence that psychopathology symptom networks have limited replicability” by Forbes, Wright, Markon, and Krueger (2017). Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(7), 989–999. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000306.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Bringmann, L. F., Vissers, N., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Kuppens, P., Peeters, F., Borsboom, D., & Tuerlinckx, F. (2013). A network approach to psychopathology: New insights into clinical longitudinal data [article]. PLoS One, 8(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bringmann, L. F., Elmer, T., Epskamp, S., Krause, R. W., Schoch, D., Wichers, M., Wigman, J. T. W., & Snippe, E. (2019). What do centrality measures measure in psychological networks? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 128(8), 892–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000446.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Crane, R. S., Brewer, J., Feldman, C., Kabat-Zinn, J., Santorelli, S., Williams, J. M. G., & Kuyken, W. (2017). What defines mindfulness-based programs? The warp and the weft. Psychological Medicine, 47(6), 990–999. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716003317.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Dahl, C. J., Lutz, A., & Davidson, R. J. (2015). Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: Cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(9), 515–523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.07.001.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Santorelli, S. F., Urbanowski, F., Harrington, A., Bonus, K., & Sheridan, J. F. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine;Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(4), 564–570. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Desbordes, G., Gard, T., Hoge, E. A., Hölzel, B. K., Kerr, C., Lazar, S. W., Olendzki, A., & Vago, D. R. (2015). Moving beyond mindfulness: Defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness, 6(2), 356–372.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Eby, L. T., Allen, T. D., Conley, K. M., Williamson, R. L., Henderson, T. G., & Mancini, V. S. (2019). Mindfulness-based training interventions for employees: A qualitative review of the literature. Human Resource Management Review, 29(2), 156–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.03.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Epskamp, S., & Fried, E. I. (2018). A tutorial on regularized partial correlation networks. Psychological Methods, 23(4), 617–634.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Epskamp, S., Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., Schmittmann, V. D., & Borsboom, D. (2012). qgraph: Network visualizations of relationships in psychometric data. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(4), 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Epskamp, S., Kruis, J., & Marsman, M. (2017). Estimating psychopathological networks: Be careful what you wish for. PLoS One, 12(6), e0179891.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., & Fried, E. I. (2018). Estimating psychological networks and their accuracy: A tutorial paper. Behavior Research Methods, 50(1), 195–212.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Fjorback, L. O., Arendt, M., Ørnbøl, E., Fink, P., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy – A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124(2), 102–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01704.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Forbes, M. K., Wright, A. G. C., Markon, K. E., & Krueger, R. F. (2017). Evidence that psychopathology symptom networks have limited replicability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(7), 969–988. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000276 10.1037/abn0000276.supp (Supplemental Materials).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H. M., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: Validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 234–246.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Fried, E. I., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2017). Moving forward: Challenges and directions for psychopathological network theory and methodology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(6), 999–1020. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617705892 [Record #3971 is using a reference type undefined in this output style.].

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Fried, E. I., van Borkulo, C. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (2017). Mental disorders as networks of problems: a review of recent insights. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-016-1319-z.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Gámez, W., Chmielewski, M., Kotov, R., Ruggero, C., & Watson, D. (2011). Development of a measure of experiential avoidance: The multidimensional experiential avoidance questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 692–713.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Gao, Z.-K., Small, M., & Kurths, J. (2016). Complex network analysis of time series. EPL (Europhysics Letters), 116(5), 50001. https://doi.org/10.1209/0295-5075/116/50001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Garland, E. L., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds meaning at the attention-emotion interface. In Mindfulness, acceptance, and positive psychology: The seven foundations of well-being (pp. 30–67). Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., Boettiger, C. A., & Howard, M. O. (2010). Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: Results of a randomized controlled pilot trial. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(2), 177–192.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., Goldin, P. R., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015a). Mindfulness broadens awareness and builds eudaimonic meaning: A process model of mindful positive emotion regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293–314.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Garland, E. L., Geschwind, N., Peeters, F., & Wichers, M. (2015b). Mindfulness training promotes upward spirals of positive affect and cognition: Multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory modeling analyses. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Garland, E. L., Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Howard, M. O. (2017). Biobehavioral mechanisms of mindfulness as a treatment for chronic stress: An RDoC perspective. Chronic Stress, 1, 2470547017711912. https://doi.org/10.1177/2470547017711912.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Germer, C. (2009). The mindful path to self-compassion: Freeing yourself from destructive thoughts and emotions (1st ed.). Guilford Press [Record #3978 is using a reference type undefined in this output style.].

  35. Goldberg, S. B., Hanley, A. W., Baldwin, S. A., Bernstein, A., & Garland, E. L. (2020). Does Mindfulness Practice Promote Psychological Functioning or Is It the Other Way Around? A Daily Diary Study. Psychotherapy, 57, 310–322. https://doi.org/10.1037/pst0000286.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Grabovac, A. D., Lau, M. A., & Willett, B. R. (2011). Mechanisms of mindfulness: A Buddhist psychological model. Mindfulness, 2(3), 154–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0054-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Grossman, P. (2008). On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(4), 405–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.02.001.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Grossman, P., & Van Dam, N. T. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: Trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 219–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564841.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Hadash, Y., Segev, N., Tanay, G., Goldstein, P., & Bernstein, A. (2016). The decoupling model of equanimity: Theory, measurement, and test in a mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness, 7(5), 1214–1226.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Garland, E. L. (2017). Self-interest may not be entirely in the interest of the self: Association between selflessness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 166–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.05.045.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Haslbeck, J. (2018). Bootstrapping edges after regularization: clarifications & tutorial. https://psych-networks.com/bootstrapping-edges-after-regularization-clarifications-tutorial/

  44. Hayes, A. M., & Strauss, J. L. (1998). Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm for the study of change in psychotherapy: An application to cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(6), 939–947. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.6.939.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Heeren, A., & McNally, R. J. (2016). An integrative network approach to social anxiety disorder: The complex dynamic interplay among attentional bias for threat, attentional control, and symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 42, 95–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.06.009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Hofmann, S. G., Curtiss, J., & McNally, R. J. (2016). A complex network perspective on clinical science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(5), 597–605.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Holas, P., & Jankowski, T. (2013). A cognitive perspective on mindfulness. International Journal of Psychology, 48(3), 232–243. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2012.658056;06.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Jankowski, T., & Holas, P. (2014). Metacognitive model of mindfulness. Consciousness and Cognition, 28, 64–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.005.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Bantam Books.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. (2001). The PHQ-9. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606–613. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., Evans, A., Radford, S., Teasdale, J. D., & Dalgleish, T. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(11), 1105–1112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2019). The experience sampling method. In M. Csikszentmihalyi (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology. Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., et al. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1467. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20326.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Lindsay, E. K., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Mechanisms of mindfulness training: Monitor and acceptance theory (MAT). Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 48–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Mahasi, S. (1978). Practical Vipassana meditational exercises. Yangon: Buddhas san nuggaha Association.

    Google Scholar 

  56. McNally, R. J. (2016). Can network analysis transform psychopathology? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 95–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.06.006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. McNally, R. J., Heeren, A., & Robinaugh, D. J. (2017). A Bayesian network analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(sup3), 1341276.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 487–495.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Municipality of Haifa, D. o. R. a. S., Strategic Planning & Research. (2012). Demography. http://www1.haifa.muni.il/spru/doc/YB/Dmgrp/Y2010/Download/DemographyDL.pdf.

  60. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115–121.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Nyanaponika, T. (1965). The heart of meditation. Boston: Weiser Books.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Olendzki, A. (2011). The construction of mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 55–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564817.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Opsahl, T., Agneessens, F., & Skvoretz, J. (2010). Node centrality in weighted networks: Generalizing degree and shortest paths. Social Networks, 32(3), 245–251.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Pandita, S. U. (2002). The meaning of satipatthana. Bangkok: Sahadhammika.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Rhemtulla, M., Fried, E. I., Aggen, S. H., Tuerlinckx, F., Kendler, K. S., & Borsboom, D. (2016). Network analysis of substance abuse and dependence symptoms. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 161, 230–237.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Robins, C. J., Keng, S.-L., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experience and expression: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 117–131. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20857.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Rodebaugh, T. L., Tonge, N. A., Piccirillo, M. L., Fried, E., Horenstein, A., Morrison, A. S., Goldin, P., Gross, J. J., Lim, M. H., Fernandez, K. C., Blanco, C., Schneier, F. R., Bogdan, R., Thompson, R. J., & Heimberg, R. G. (2018). Does centrality in a cross-sectional network suggest intervention targets for social anxiety disorder? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(10), 831–844. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000336.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. Schmittmann, V. D., Cramer, A. O., Waldorp, L. J., Epskamp, S., Kievit, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (2013). Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomena. New Ideas in Psychology, 31(1), 43–53.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Sears, S., & Kraus, S. (2009). I think therefore I Om: Cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 561–573.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., & Teasdale, J. D. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Shiffman, S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4(1), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091415.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Shoham, A., Goldstein, P., Oren, R., Spivak, D., & Bernstein, A. (2017). Decentering in the process of cultivating mindfulness: An experience-sampling study in time and context. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(2), 123–134.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Shoham, A., Hadash, Y., & Bernstein, A. (2018). Examining the decoupling model of equanimity in mindfulness training: An intensive experience sampling study. Clinical Psychological Science, 6(5), 704–720. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702618770446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Simons, J. S., & Gaher, R. M. (2005). The distress tolerance scale: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Motivation and Emotion, 29(2), 83–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-005-7955-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Snippe, E., Simons, C. J. P., Hartmann, J. A., Menne-Lothmann, C., Kramer, I., Booij, S. H., Viechtbauer, W., Delespaul, P., Myin-Germeys, I., & Wichers, M. (2015). Change in daily life behaviors and depression: Within-person and between-person associations.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Tanay, G., & Bernstein, A. (2013). State mindfulness scale (SMS): Development and initial validation. Psychological Assessment, 25(4), 1286–1299.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Tang, Y.-Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213–225.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Thera, N. (1970). The heart of Buddhist meditation: A handbook of mental training based on the Buddha’s way of mindfulness; with an anthology of relevant texts translated from the Pali and Sanskrit. Samuel Weiser.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Tibshirani, R. (1996). Regression shrinkage and selection via the lasso. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B: Methodological, 58(1), 267–288.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): A framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1–30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., Meissner, T., Lazar, S. W., Gorchov, J., & Fox, K. C. (2018). Reiterated concerns and further challenges for mindfulness and meditation research: A reply to Davidson and Dahl. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(1), 66–69.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Van Der Velden, A. M., Kuyken, W., Wattar, U., Crane, C., Pallesen, K. J., Dahlgaard, J., Fjorback, L. O., & Piet, J. (2015). A systematic review of mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 26–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.02.001.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Wegner, D. M., & Zanakos, S. (1994). Chronic thought suppression. Journal of Personality, 62(4), 615–640.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ravit Oren, David Spivak, Pavel Goldstein, Galia Tanay, and Reut Plonsker, Department of Psychology, Haifa University, for their assistance in carrying out the reported study.

Funding

We recognize the funding support of the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF) awarded to Amit Bernstein. Adi Shoham recognizes the support from the University of Haifa President’s Doctoral Fellowship Program.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Amit Bernstein and Adi Shoham designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper together with Anna Aizik-Reebs, who analyzed the data. Yuval Hadash collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. Anna Aizik-Reebs and Adi Shoham share lead authorship of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amit Bernstein.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study received an ethics approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of Haifa.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was received.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

ESM 1

(DOCX 155 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aizik-Reebs, A., Shoham, A., Hadash, Y. et al. A Network Modeling Approach to Mindfulness Mechanisms: a Proof-of-Concept Investigation. Mindfulness 12, 1115–1126 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01580-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dynamic systems
  • Mindfulness
  • Mindfulness-based intervention
  • Mechanisms
  • Experience sampling
  • Network analysis
  • Meditation