Is Self-Compassion Protective Among Sexual- and Gender-Minority Adolescents Across Racial Groups?

Abstract

Objectives

Sexual- and/or gender-minority (SGM) youth report rates of suicidality, depression, and anxiety that are two to three times greater than those of their sexual- and gender-majority peers. Mounting evidence suggests that self-compassion can moderate the impact of stress on anxiety, depression, and suicidality. However, the potential limitations of self-compassion in overcoming adversity associated with minority status has not yet been investigated among youth with multiply marginalized identities (i.e., young people who find themselves at the intersection of more than one stigmatized group).

Methods

Informed by the minority stress hypothesis and intersectionality theory and using models of moderated moderation as well as group mean and proportion comparisons, this secondary data analysis (n = 1572) compared buffering effects of self-compassion across youth experiencing varying degrees of marginalization.

Results

In this study, although white sexual- and/or gender-minority adolescents reported higher rates of general peer victimization and anxiety than did counterparts of color, and to a moderate effect (Hedges’ g = .31 and .30, respectively), results of the Pearson’s chi-squared tests affirmed that sexual- and/or gender-minority students of color reported two to three times the frequency of exposure to structural discrimination. Results of the conditional process analysis suggest that the distinction across race within SGM status appeared in how self-compassion moderated the impact of identity on depressive symptoms compared with the reference group (i.e., white sexual- and gender-majority students). We did not find significant differences in how self-compassion moderated the relationship between sexual identity and depressive symptoms across racial groups.

Conclusions

There is evidence to suggest that the relationship between self-compassion and mental health may differ according to degree of exposure to structural discrimination.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Aberson, C. (2002). Interpreting null results: Improving presentation and conclusions with confidence intervals. Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis, 1(3), 36-42.

  2. Andersen, M. L., & Collins, P. H. (2010). Why race, class, and gender still matter. In M. L. Andersen & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (7th ed., pp. 1–16). Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bethell, C. D., Carle, A., Hudziak, J., Gombojav, N., Powers, K., Wade, R., & Braveman, P. (2017). Methods to assess adverse childhood experiences of children and families: Toward approaches to promote child well-being in policy and practice. Academic Pediatrics, 17(7S), S51–S69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2017.04.161.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Bluth, K., & Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A. (2017). Response to a mindful self-compassion intervention in teens: A within-person association of mindfulness, self-compassion, and emotional well-being outcomes. Journal of Adolescence, 57, 108–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.04.00.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Bluth, K., Gaylord, S. A., Campo, R. A., Mullarkey, M. C., & Hobbs, L. (2016a). Making friends with yourself: A mixed methods pilot study of a mindful self-compassion program for adolescents. Mindfulness, 7(2), 479–492.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Bluth, K., Roberson, P. N., Gaylord, S. A., Faurot, K. R., Grewen, K. M., Arzon, S., & Girdler, S. S. (2016b). Does self-compassion protect adolescents from stress? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(4), 1098–1109.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bostwick, W. B., Meyer, I., Aranda, F., Russell, S., Hughes, T., Birkett, M., & Mustanski, B. (2014). Mental health and suicidality among racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority youths. American Journal of Public Health, 104(6), 1129–1136. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.30174.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Bowleg, L. (2008). When black + lesbian + woman ≠ black lesbian woman: The methodological challenges of qualitative and quantitative intersectionality research. Sex Roles, 59(5–6), 312–325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-008-9400-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bowleg, L. (2012). The problem with the phrase women and minorities: Intersectionality—an important theoretical framework for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 102(7), 1267–1273. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2012.300750.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Braveman, P. A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., LaVeist, T., Borrell, L. N., Manderscheid, R., & Troutman, A. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(S1), S149–S155.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Breines, J. G., McInnis, C. M., Kuras, Y., Thoma, M. V., Gianferante, D., Hanlin, L., & Chen, & Rohleder, N. (2015). Self-compassionate young adults show lower salivary alpha-amylase responses to repeated psychosocial stress. Self and Identity, 14(4), 390–402.

  12. Brener, N. D., Kann, L., McManus, T., Kinchen, S. A., Sundberg, E. C., & Ross, J. G. (2002). Reliability of the 1999 youth risk behavior survey questionnaire. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(4), 336–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Breslow, A. S., Brewster, M. E., Velez, B. L., Wong, S., Geiger, E., & Soderstrom, B. (2015). Resilience and collective action: Exploring buffers against minority stress for transgender individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 253–265. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd000011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Brondolo, E., Thompson, S., Brady, N., Appel, R., Cassells, A., Tobin, J. N., & Sweeney, M. (2005). The relationship of racism to appraisals and coping in a community sample. Ethnicity and Disease, 15(4), S5–S19.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Brooks, V. R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

  16. Button, D. M., O’Connell, D. J., & Gealt, R. (2012). Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: The intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization. Journal of Homosexuality, 59(1), 18–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2011.614903.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  18. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386–396.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  20. Consolacion, T. B., Russell, S. T., & Sue, S. (2004). Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: Multiple minority status adolescents and mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 200–214. https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.10.3.200.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Cook, J. E., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Meyer, I. H., & Busch, J. T. (2014). Intervening within and across levels: A multilevel approach to stigma and public health. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 103, 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.09.023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241. https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Cyrus, K. (2017). Multiple minorities as multiply marginalized: Applying the minority stress theory to LGBTQ people of color. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 21(3), 194–202.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Darlington, R. B., & Hayes, A. F. (2017). Regression analysis and linear models: Concepts, applications, and implementation. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. (2014). Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 43–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Diedrich, A., Hofmann, S. G., Cuijpers, P., & Berking, M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 82, 1–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. DiFulvio, G. T. (2011). Sexual minority youth, social connection and resilience: From personal struggle to collective identity. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 72(10), 1611–1617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.045.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Ellison, G. T. H. (2005). ‘Population profiling’ and public health risk: When and how should we use race/ethnicity? Critical Public Health, 15(1), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/09581590500048416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2-3), 123–142.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202–216.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Espelage, D. L., Merrin, G. J., & Hatchel, T. (2016). Peer victimization and dating violence among LGBTQ youth. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 16(2), 156–173. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204016680408.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 399–419. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144357.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Galla, B. M. (2016). Within-person changes in mindfulness and self-compassion predict enhanced emotional well-being in healthy, but stressed adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 49, 204–217.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Godfrey, E. B., Santos, C. E., & Burson, E. (2017). For better or worse? System-justifying beliefs in sixth-grade predict trajectories of self-esteem and behavior across early adolescence. Child Development, 00(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12854.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gordon, A. R., & Meyer, I. H. (2008). Gender nonconformity as a target of prejudice, discrimination, and violence against LGB individuals. Journal of LGBT Health Research, 3(3), 55–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/15574090802093562.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). How does sexual minority stigma get under the skin? A psychological mediation framework. Psychological Bulletin, 135(5), 707–730. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016441.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2011). The social environment and suicide attempts in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 127(5), 896–903. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3020.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2008). Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in a longitudinal study of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(12), 1270–1278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01924.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 813–821.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2016). Stigma and minority stress as social determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth:research evidence and clinical implications. Pediatric Clinics, 63(6), 985–997.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Hayes, A. F., & Montoya, A. K. (2017). A tutorial on testing, visualizing, and probing an interaction involving a multicategorical variable in linear regression analysis. Communication Methods and Measures, 11(1), 1–30.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hedges, L. V., & Okin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Herek, G. M. (2007). Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Theory and practice. Journal of Social Issues, 63(4), 905–925.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Holley, M. L., Stromwall, L. K., & Bashor, H. (2012). Reconceptualizing stigma: Toward a critical anti-oppression paradigm. Stigma Research and Action, 2(2), 51–61. https://doi.org/10.5463/sra.v1i1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Irvine, A., & Canfield, A. (2016). The overrepresentation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming and transgender youth within the child welfare to juvenile justice crossover population. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 24(2), 2 Available at: http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/jgspl/vol24/iss2/2. Accessed 5 Jan 2019.

  47. Johnson, J. (2016). Resilience: The bi-dimensional framework. In The Wiley handbook of positive clinical psychology (pp. 73–88). Chichester: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118468197.ch6.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Johnson, J., Panagioti, M., Bass, J., Ramsey, L., & Harrison, R. (2017). Resilience to emotional distress in response to failure, error or mistakes: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 52, 19–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.11.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25(6), 881–919.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kertzner, R. M., Meyer, I. H., Frost, D. M., & Stirratt, M. J. (2009). Social and psychological well-being in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: The effects of race, gender, age, and sexual identity. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(4), 500–510. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016848.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. King, M., Semelyn, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). Mental disorders, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people: A systematic review of the literature. London: National Institute for Mental Health England.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Klonoff, E. A., & Landrine, H. J. (2000). Is skin color a marker for racial discrimination? Explaining the skin color–hypertension relationship. Behavioral Medicine, 23(4), 329–338. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005580300128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: Prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 317–325.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2009). An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: The PHQ–4. Psychosomatics, 50(6), 613–621.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. LeVasseur, M. T., Kelvin, E. A., & Grosskopf, N. A. (2013). Intersecting identities and the association between bullying and suicide attempt among New York City youths: Results from the 2009 New York City youth risk behavior survey. American Journal of Public Health, 103(6), 1082–1089.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. Löwe, B., Wahl, I., Rose, M., Spitzer, C., Glaesmer, H., Wingenfeld, K., et al. (2010). A 4-item measure of depression and anxiety: validation and standardization of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) in the general population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(1-2), 86–95.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 545–552.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Malat, J., Mayorgo-Gallo, S., & Williams, D. (2018). The effects of whiteness on the health of whites in the USA. Social Science and Medicine, 199, 148–156.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Marsh, I. C., Chan, S. W. Y., & MacBeth, A. (2017). Self-compassion and psychological distress in adolescents—A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0850-.

  60. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.56.3.227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Mereish, E. H., & Poteat, V. P. (2015). The conditions under which growth-fostering relationships promote resilience and alleviate psychological distress among sexual minorities: Applications of relational cultural theory. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 339–344. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd000012.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Meyer, I. H. (1995). Minority stress and mental health in gay men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38–56 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2137286?uid=3739256&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21103311817731.

  63. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice as stress: Conceptual and measurement problems. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 262–265. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.262.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Miller, J. B., & Stiver, I. P. (1997). The healing connection: How women form relationships in therapy and in life. Boston, M.A: Beacon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Mitchum, P., & Moodie-Mills, A. C. (2014). Beyond bullying: How hostile school climate perpetuates the school-to-prison pipeline for LGBT youth. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/lgbt/reports/2014/02/27/84179/beyond-bullying/. Accessed 2 Feb 2015.

  66. Moradi, B., Wiseman, M. C., DeBlaere, C., Goodman, M. B., Sarkees, A., Brewster, M. E., & Huang, Y. (2010). LGB of color and white individuals’ perceptions of heterosexist stigma, internalized homophobia, and outness: Comparisons of levels and links. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(3), 397–424. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000009335263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Mueller, A. S., James, W., Abrutyn, S., & Levin, M. L. (2015). Suicide ideation and bullying among US adolescents: Examining the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity. American Journal of Public Health, 105(5), 980–985. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302391.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. Mustanski, B., Newcomb, M. E., & Garofalo, R. (2011). Mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A developmental resiliency perspective. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 23(2), 204–225.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Mustanski, B., Andrews, R., & Puckett, J. A. (2016). The effects of cumulative victimization on mental health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 106(3), 527–533. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302976.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. Nadal, K. L., Issa, M. A., Leon, J., Meterko, V., Wideman, M., & Wong, Y. (2011). Sexual orientation microaggressions: “Death by a thousand cuts” for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of LGBT Youth, 8(3), 234–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2011.584204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2(2), 85–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860390129863.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1019–1029.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. O’Shaughnessy, M., Russell, S. T., Heck, K., Calhoun, C., & Laub, C. (2004). Safe place to learn: Consequences of harassment based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender non-conformity and steps for making schools safer. San Francisco: California Safe Schools Coalition.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Okun, T. (n.d.) Manifestations of White supremacy culture. Dismantling racism. Retrieved from: http://www.dismantlingracism.org/white-supremacy-culture.html. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.

  76. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Poehlmann-Tynan, J., & Eddy, J. M. (2019). A research and intervention agenda for children with incarcerated parents and their families. In J. M. Eddy & J. Poehlmann-Tynan (eds.),  Handbook on children with incarcerated parents (pp. 353–371). New York, NY: Springer.

  78. Poteat, V. P., Mereish, E. H., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Koenig, B. W. (2011). The effects of general and homophobic victimization on adolescents' psychosocial and educational concerns: The importance of intersecting identities and parent support. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(4), 597.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Poteat, V. P., Sinclair, K. O., DiGiovanni, C. D., Koenig, B. W., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Gay-straight alliances are associated with student health: A multischool comparison of LGBTQ and heterosexual youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 319-330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00832.x.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Raes, F., Pommier, E., Neff, K. D., & Van Gucht, D. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the self-compassion scale. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(3), 250–255.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Reisner, S. L., Greytak, E. A., Parsons, J. T., & Ybarra, M. L. (2015a). Gender minority social stress in adolescence: Disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(3), 243–256. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.88632.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Reisner, S. L., Vetters, R., Leclerc, M., Zaslow, S., Wolfrum, S., Shumer, D., & Mimiaga, M. J. (2015b). Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: A matched retrospective cohort study. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 56(3), 274–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Rieger, G., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (2012). Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(3), 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-011-9738-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Robinson, J. P., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). Bullying explains only part of lgbtq-heterosexual risk disparities: Implications for policy and practice. Educational Researcher, 41(8), 309–319. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X12457023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Robinson-Cimpian, J. P. (2014). Inaccurate estimation of disparities due to mischievous responders. Educational Researcher, 43(4), 171–185.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Ryan, C., Russell, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205–213.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Schilt, K., & Westbrook, L. (2009). Doing gender, doing heteronormativity: 'Gender normals,' transgender people, and the social maintenance of heterosexuality. Gender & Society, 23(4), 440–464. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243209340034.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Sellers, R. M., Copeland-Linder, N., Martin, P. P., & Lewis, R. (2006). Racial identity matters: The relationship between racial discrimination and psychological functioning in african american adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(2), 187–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Shallcross, A. J., & Spruill, T. M. (2017). The protective role of mindfulness in the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression. Mindfulness, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0845.

  90. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (2012). Social dominance theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (p.  418–438). Thousand Okas, CA: Sage. 

  91. SPSS, I. B. M. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 23.0. New York: IBM Corp.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Toomey, R. B., McGuire, J. K., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers. Journal of Adolescence, 35(1), 187–196.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Ungar, M. (2003). Qualitative contributions to resilience research. Qualitative Social Work, 2(1), 85–102.

    Google Scholar 

  94. van Beusekom, G. V. B., Bos, M. W., Overbeek, G., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2015). Same-sex attraction, gender nonconformity, and mental health: The protective role of parental acceptance. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 307–312. https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd000011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Vigna, A. B., Poehlmann-Tynan, J., & Koenig, B. (2018). Does self-compassion facilitate resilience to stigma? A school-based study of sexual and gender minority youth. Mindfulness, 9(3), 914-924. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0831-x.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Vigna, A. B., Poehlmann-Tynan, J., & Koenig, B. (2018). Does self-compassion covary with minority stress? Examining group differences at the intersection of marginalized identities. Self and Identity. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2018.1457566.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Wexler, L. M., DiFulvio, G., & Burke, T. K. (2009). Resilience and marginalized youth: Making a case for personal and collective meaning-making as part of resilience research in public health. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 69(4), 565–570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.06.022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. White Hughto, J. M., Reisner, S. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2015). Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 147, 222–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2013). Race to equity: A baseline report on the state of racial disparities in Dane County. Madison: Author Retrieved from www.wccf.org. Accessed 10 Oct 2019.

  100. Worthen, M. G. F. (2016). Hetero-cis–normativity and the gendering of transphobia. International Journal of Transgenderism, 17(1), 31–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/15532739.2016.1149538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Xu, J., Murphy, S. L., Kochanek, K. D., Bastian, B., & Arias, E. (2018). Deaths: Final data 2016. National Vital Statistics Reports, 67(5) July 26, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_05.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2019.

  102. Yang, X., & Mak, W. W. S. (2017). The differential moderating roles of self-compassion and mindfulness in self-stigma and well-being among people living with mental illness or HIV. Mindfulness, 8, 595-602. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0635-4.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Zaza, S., Kann, L., & Barrios, L. C. (2016). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: Population estimate and prevalence of health behaviors. JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.11683.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

AV designed and executed the study, conducted the data analyses, and wrote the paper. JPT collaborated with the design, consulted on the data analysis, and contributed to the writing and editing of the paper. BK brokered the relationship to secure the data.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abra J. Vigna.

Ethics declarations

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Secondary analysis of existing data was approved by the University of Wisconsin–Madison Institutional Review Board.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(PPTX 56 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vigna, A.J., Poehlmann-Tynan, J. & Koenig, B.W. Is Self-Compassion Protective Among Sexual- and Gender-Minority Adolescents Across Racial Groups?. Mindfulness 11, 800–815 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01294-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sexual and gender minorities
  • Self-compassion
  • Peer victimization
  • Depression and suicidality