Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Sage: Newbury Park.
American Psychological Association. (2006). Evidence-based practice in psychology. The American Psychologist, 61(4), 271–285. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.271.
Amir, N., Taylor, C. T., & Donohue, M. C. (2011). Predictors of response to an attention modification program in generalized social phobia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(4), 533–541. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023808.
Anicha, C. L., Ode, S., Moeller, S. K., & Robinson, M. D. (2012). Toward a cognitive view of trait mindfulness: distinct cognitive skills predict its observing and nonreactivity facets. Journal of Personality, 80(2), 255–285. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00722.x.
Arch, J. J., Landy, L. N., & Brown, K. W. (2016). Predictors and moderators of biopsychological social stress responses following brief self-compassion meditation training. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 69(2016), 35–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.03.009.
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191107313003.
Barnhofer, T., & Chittaka, T. (2010). Cognitive reactivity mediates the relationship between neuroticism and depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 276–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.005.
Batterham, P. J., Ftanou, M., Pirkis, J., Brewer, J. L., Mackinnon, A. J., Beautrais, A., … Christensen, H. (2015). A systematic review and evaluation of measures for suicidal ideation and behaviors in population-based research. Psychological Assessment, 27(2), 501–512. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000053
Beck, A., Steer, R., & Brown, G. (1996). Mannual for the Beck Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
Bohlmeijer, E. T., ten Klooster, P. M., Fledderus, M., Veehof, M., & Baer, R. A. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form. Assessment, 18, 308–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191111408231.
Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: an integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(6), 560–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.005.
Christopher, M. S., Neuser, N. J., Michael, P. G., & Baitmangalkar, A. (2012). Exploring the psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Mindfulness, 3, 124–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0086-x.
Coldwell, C. M., & Bender, W. S. (2007). The effectiveness of assertive community treatment for homeless populations with severe mental Illness: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 393–399. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2007.164.3.393.
Curtin, S., Warner, M., & Hedegaard, H. (2016). Suicide rates for females and males by race and ethnicity: United States, 1999 and 2014. NCHS Health E-stat. National Center for Health Statistics.
Curtiss, J., Klemanski, D. H., Andrews, L., Ito, M., & Hofmann, S. G. (2017). The conditional process model of mindfulness and emotion regulation: an empirical test. Journal of Affective Disorders, 212, 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.01.027.
Davidson, R. J. (2010). Empirical explorations of mindfulness: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Emotion, 10(1), 8–11. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018480.
Dutton, M. A., Bermudez, D., Matas, A., Majid, H., & Myers, N. L. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of intimate partner violence. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(1), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2011.08.003.
Elgersma, H. J., De Jong, P. J., Van Rijsbergen, G. D., Kok, G. D., Burger, H., Van Der Does, W., et al. (2015). Cognitive reactivity, self-depressed associations, and the recurrence of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 183, 300–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.018.
Finlay-Jones, A., Xie, Q., Huang, X., Ma, X., & Guo, X. (2018). A pilot study of the 8-week mindful self-compassion training program in a Chinese community sample. Mindfulness, 9(3), 993–1002. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0838-3.
Forkmann, T., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Peeters, F., Van Os, J., Mainz, V., & Collip, D. (2014). Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on self-reported suicidal ideation: results from a randomised controlled trial in patients with residual depressive symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(8), 1883–1890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.08.043.
Fournier, J., & DeRubeis, R. (2009). Prediction of response to medication and cognitive therapy in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(4), 775–787. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015401.
Galante, J., Galante, I., Bekkers, M. J., & Gallacher, J. (2014). Effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: asystematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 1101–1114. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037249.
Germer, C. K., & Neff, K. D. (2013). Self-compassion in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(8), 856–867. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22021.
Germer, C. K., & Neff, K. D. (2015). Cultivating self-compassion in trauma survivors. In V. M. Follette, J. Briere, D. Rozelle, J. W. Hopper, & D. I. Rome (Eds.), Mindfulness-oriented interventions for trauma: integrating contemplative practices (pp. 43–58). Guilford Press.
Goldberg, S. B., Tucker, R. P., Greene, P. A., Davidson, R. J., Wampold, B. E., Kearney, D. J., & Simpson, T. L. (2018). Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 59, 52–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.011.
Goldin, P. R., & Jazaieri, H. (2017). Investigating moderators of compassion meditation training in a community sample. Mindfulness, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0857-0.
González, H. M., Vega, W. A., Williams, D. R., Tarraf, W., West, B. T., & Neighbors, H. W. (2010). Depression care in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.168.
Gu, J., Strauss, C., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Karl, A., Cavanagh, K., et al. (2016). Examining the factor structure of the 39-item and 15-item versions of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with recurrent depression. Psychological Assessment, 28(7), 791–802. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000263.
Hamburg, M. A., & Collins, F. S. (2010). The path to personalized medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 363, 301–304. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1006304.
Held, P., & Owens, G. P. (2015). Effects of self-compassion workbook training on trauma-related guilt in a sample of homeless veterans: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 513–526. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22170.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama. (2001). The compassionate life. Somerville: Wisdom Publications.
Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 537–559. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691611419671.
Houry, D., Kemball, R., Rhodes, K. V., & Kaslow, N. J. (2006). Intimate partner violence and mental health symptoms in African American female ED patients. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 24, 444–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2005.12.026.
Huey, S. J., Henggeler, S. W., Rowland, M. D., Halliday-Boykins, C. A., Cunningham, P. B., Pickrel, S. G., & Edwards, J. (2004). Multisystemic therapy effects on attempted suicide by youths presenting psychiatric emergencies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200402000-00014.
Iani, L., Lauriola, M., Chiesa, A., & Cafaro, V. (2019). Associations between mindfulness and emotion regulation: the key role of describing and nonreactivity. Mindfulness, 10(2), 366–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0981-5.
Insel, T. R. (2009). Translating scientific opportunity into public health impact. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(2), 128–133. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.540.
Interian, A., Lewis-Fernández, R., & Dixon, L. B. (2013). Improving treatment engagement of underserved U.S. racial-ethnic groups: a review of recent interventions. Psychiatric Services, 64(3), 212–222. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201100136.
Ivey-Stephenson, A. Z., Crosby, A. E., Jack, S. P. D., Haileyesus, T., & Kresnow-Sedacca, M. (2017). Suicide trends among and within urbanization: levels by sex, race/ethnicity, age group, and mechanism of death — United States, 2001–2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66(18), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6618a1.
Jazaieri, H., McGonigal, K., Jinpa, T., Doty, J. R., Gross, J. J., & Goldin, P. R. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of compassion cultivation training: effects on mindfulness, affect, and emotion regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-013-9368-z.
Joe, S., Woolley, M. E., Brown, G. K., Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Psychometric properties of the beck depression inventory-II in low-income, African American suicide attempters. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 521–523. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223890802248919.
Johnson, P. A., & Fay, L. C. (1950). The Johnson-Neyman technique, its theory and application. Psychometrika, 15, 349–367. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02288864.
Johnson, S. B., Goodnight, B. L., Zhang, H., Daboin, I., Patterson, B., & Kaslow, N. J. (2018). Compassion-based meditation in African Americans: self-criticism mediates changes in depression. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 48(2), 160–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12347.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 281–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2011.564844.
Kaslow, N. J., Thompson, M. P., Gibb, B., Meadows, L. A., Jacobs, D., Chance, S., et al. (1998). Factors that mediate and moderate the link between partner abuse and suicidal behavior in African American women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 533–540.
Kaslow, N. J., Leiner, A. S., Reviere, S., Jackson, E., Bethea, K., Bhaju, J., … Thompson, M. P. (2010). Suicidal, abused African American women’s response to a culturally informed intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(4), 449–458. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019692
Kelly, A. C., Zuroff, D. C., Foa, C. L., & Gilbert, P. (2010). Who benefits from training in self-compassionate self-regulation? A study of smoking reduction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(7), 727–755. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2010.29.7.727.
Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., … Hofmann, S. G. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(6), 763–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.05.005
Kim, S., & Cardemil, E. (2012). Effective psychotherapy with low-income clients: the importance of attending to social class. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 42, 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-011-9194-0.
Kirby, J. N., Tellegen, C. L., & Steindl, S. R. (2017). A meta-analysis of compassion-based interventions: current state of knowledge and future directions. Behavior Therapy, 48(6), 778–792. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.003.
Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, G. T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(10), 877–883. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.10.877.
Kraemer, H. C., Frank, E., & Kupfer, D. J. (2006). Moderators of treatment outcomes: clinical, research, and policy importance. JAMA, 296(10), 1286. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.10.1286.
Kuehner, C., Liebsch, K., & Huffziger, S. (2009). Emotional reactivity to induced rumination predicts 1-year levels of depressive symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 39, 1226–1228. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709005704.
Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., et al. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(11), 1105–1112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.003.
Lamis, D. A., & Lester, D. (2012). Risk factors for suicidal ideation among African American and European American college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36(3), 337–349. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684312439186.
Leaviss, J., & Uttley, L. (2015). Psychotherapuetic benefits of compassion-focused therapy: an early systemic review. Psychological Medicine, 45, 927–945. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714002141.
Lippert, A. M., & Lee, B. A. (2015). Stress, coping, and mental health differences among homeless people. Sociological Inquiry, 85(3), 343–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/soin.12080.
LoParo, D., Mack, S. A., Patterson, B., Negi, L. T., & Kaslow, N. J. (2018). The efficacy of cognitively-based compassion training for african american suicide attempters. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0940-1.
MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). Integrating mediators and moderators in research design. Research in Social Work Practice, 21(6), 675–681. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731511414148.
Mak, W. W. S., Tong, A. C. Y., Yip, S. Y. C., Lui, W. W. S., Choi, F. H. N., Chan, A. T. Y., & Wong, C. C. Y. (2018). Efficacy and moderation of mobile app–based programs for mindfulness-based training, self-compassion training, and cognitive behavioral psychoeducation on mental health: Randomized controlled noninferiority trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 5(4), e60. https://doi.org/10.2196/mental.8597.
Milner, A., McClure, R., & De Leo, D. (2012). Socioeconomic determinants of suicide: an ecological analysis of 35 countries. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0316-x.
Missinne, S., & Bracke, P. (2012). Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countires. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 97–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0321-0.
Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. NCHS Data Brief (Vol. 328). Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm184002260220306.
Nakagawa, S. (2004). A farewell to Bonferroni: the problems of low statistical power and publication bias. Behavioral Ecology, 15(6), 1044–1045. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arh107.
Neacsiu, A. D., Rizvi, S. L., & Linehan, M. M. (2010). Dialectical behavior therapy skills use as a mediator and outcome of treatment for borderline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 832–839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.017.
Neff, K. D. (2003a). Self-compassion: an alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85–101. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860390129863.
Neff, K. D. (2003b). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860390209035.
Neff, K. D. (2016). The Self-Compassion Scale is a valid and theoretically coherent measure of self-compassion. Mindfulness, 7(1), 264–274.
Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21923.
Neff, K. D., Whittaker, T. A., & Karl, A. (2017). Examining the factor structrue of the self-compassion scale in four distinct populations: is the use of a total scale score justified? Journal of Personality Assessment, 6, 596–607. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2016.1269334.
Neff, K. D., Tóth-Király, I., Yarnell, L. M., Arimitsu, K., Castilho, P., Ghorbani, N., et al. (2019). Examining the factor structure of the self-compassion scale in 20 diverse samples: support for use of a total score and six subscale scores. Psychological Assessment, 1, 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000629.
Oakes, J. M., & Feldman, H. A. (2001). Statistical power for nonequivalent pretest-posttest designs: the impact of change-score versus ANCOVA models. Evaluation Review, 25(1), 3–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841X0102500101.
Olfson, M., Blanco, C., Wall, M., Liu, S.-M., Saha, T. D., Pickering, R. P., & Grant, B. F. (2017). National trends in suicide attempts among adults in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 10032(11), 1095–1103. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2582.
Ozawa-de Silva, B. R., Dodson-Lavelle, B., Raison, C. L., & Negi, L. T. (2012). Compassion and ethics: scientific and practical approaches to the cultivation of compassion as a foundation for ethical subjectivity and well-being. Journal of Healthcare, Science and the Humanities, II(1), 145–161.
Pace, T. W. W., Negi, L. T., Adame, D. D., Cole, S. P., Sivilli, T. I., Brown, T. D., et al. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1), 87–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.08.011.
Pace, T. W. W., Negi, L. T., Dodson-Lavelle, B., Ozawa-de Silva, B., Reddy, S. D., Cole, S. P., … Raison, C. L. (2013). Engagement with cognitively-based compassion training is associated with reduced salivary C-reactive protein and cortisol from before to after training in foster care program adolescents. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 38, 294–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.179
Paul, G. L. (1967). Strategy of outcome research in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31(2), 109–118.
Perneger, T. V. (1998). What’s wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. British Medical Journal, 316, 1236–1238. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7139.1236.
Roush, J. F., Mitchell, S. M., Brown, S. L., & Cukrowicz, K. C. (2018). Thwarted interpersonal needs mediate the relation between facets of mindfulness and suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry Research, 265, 167–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.04.026.
Scher, C. D., Ingram, R. E., & Segal, Z. V. (2005). Cognitive reactivity and vulnerability: empirical evaluation of construct activation and cognitive diatheses in unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 487–510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.01.005.
Slee, N., Spinhoven, P., Garnefski, N., & Arensman, E. (2008). Emotional regulation as mediator of treatment outcome in therapy for deliberate self-harm. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15, 205–216. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.577.
Thomas, S. J. (2012). Homelessness, poverty, and unemployment. Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers.
Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. (2008). Self-Compassion and PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(6), 556–557. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20374.
Van Breukelen, G. J. P. (2006). ANCOVA versus change from baseline had more power in randomized studies and more bias in nonrandomized studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 59(9), 920–925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.02.007.
Waldron, E. M., Hong, S., Moskowitz, J. T., & Burnett-Zeigler, I. (2018). A systematic review of the demographic characteristics of participants in US-based randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based interventions. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0920-5.
Watson-Singleton, N. N., Walker, J. H., LoParo, D., Mack, S. A., & Kaslow, N. J. (2018). Psychometric evaluation of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in a clinical sample of African Americans. Mindfulness, 9(1), 312–324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0776-0.
Williams, M. J., Dalgleish, T., Karl, A., & Kuyken, W. (2014). Examining the factor structures of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire and the self-compassion scale. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 407–418. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035566.
Woods-Giscombe, C. L., & Black, A. R. (2010). Mind-body interventions to reduce risk for health disparities related to stress and strength among African American women: the potential of mindfulness-based stress reduction, loving-kindness, and the NTU therapeutic framework. Complement Health Practice Review, 15(3), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1177/1533210110386776.
Zhang, H., Neelarambam, K., Schwenke, T., Rhodes, M. N., Pittman, D., & Kaslow, N. J. (2013). Mediators of a culturally-sensitive intervention for suicidal African American women. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 20, 401–414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-013-9373-0.
Zhang, H., Dong, L., Watson-Singleton, N. N., Tarantino, N., Carr, E. R., Niles-Carners, L. V., … Kaslow, N. J. (2019). Psychometric properties of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in an African American clinical Sample. Mindfulness, 10(7), 1395–1405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01099-6