, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 972–979 | Cite as

The Mindful Personality II: Exploring the Metatraits from a Cybernetic Perspective

  • Adam W. Hanley
  • Anne K. Baker
  • Eric L. GarlandEmail author


Relationships between dispositional mindfulness and the personality metatraits, stability and plasticity, remain unexplored despite continued efforts to more accurately characterize associations between dispositional mindfulness and personality. The metatraits are theorized to constitute basic requirements for biological survival and their expression is believed to be a strong determinant of well-being. As such, this study used path analysis to explore associations between dispositional mindfulness, the metatraits, and psychological well-being in a sample of 403 American adults. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is principally associated with stability, or the capacity to sustain currently operative schemas and goals. Results further suggest a positive relationship between dispositional mindfulness and plasticity, or the tendency to flexibly adapt to changing circumstances. A more granular investigation of these associations demonstrated that the facets of dispositional mindfulness are differentially related with the metatraits. Ultimately, the metatraits were found to fully mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being.


Mindfulness Personality Personality metatraits Stability Plasticity Well-being 


Author Contributions

AWH designed and executed the study, performed the data analyses, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. AKB collaborated in the writing and editing of the final manuscript. ELG collaborated with the data analysis plan and writing of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interests

Adam Hanley, Anne Baker, and Eric Garland declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Eric Garland was supported in the preparation of this manuscript by Grant R01DA042033 from NIDA and Grant R61AT009296 from NCCIH.

Ethics Statement

This research was approved by Florida State University’s Institutional Review Board.

Informed Consent Statement

To ensure informed consent, all participants actively selected that they consented to take part in the study before being able to proceed to the survey questions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam W. Hanley
    • 1
  • Anne K. Baker
    • 1
  • Eric L. Garland
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center on Mindfulness and Integrative Health Intervention DevelopmentUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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