Present with You: Does Cultivated Mindfulness Predict Greater Social Connection Through Gains in Decentering and Reductions in Negative Emotions?

Abstract

The current study investigates whether mindfulness increases feelings of social connection and tests possible mechanisms of action and consequences of any gains observed. We hypothesized that, relative to an active control condition, participants randomized to a mindfulness meditation course would experience gains in feeling socially connected. Further, we expected these gains would be mediated by boosts in decentering and reductions in negative emotions and that, as a result of greater social connection, participants would report greater positive emotions. Ninety-four community member adults were randomly assigned to a 6-week Mindfulness Meditation course (n = 51) or a 6-week active control course (“Health Promotion”; n = 43). Participants were assessed for social connection, decentering, and emotions at pre- and post-training. A higher-order latent change model found support for elements of the model that were unrelated to the experimental condition. An exploratory higher-order latent change model found that gains in trait mindfulness, rather than condition, supported the hypothesized model. These findings suggest that gains in trait mindfulness predict greater social connection through boosts in decentering and that gains in social connection predict greater positive emotions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Algoe, S. B., Fredrickson, B. L., & Gable, S. L. (2013). The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression. Emotion, 13(4), 605–609. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032701.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1849–1858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.12.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Atkinson, B. J. (2013). Mindfulness training and the cultivation of secure, satisfying couple relationships. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 2(2), 73–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/cfp0000002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191104268029.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Barnes, S., Brown, K., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W., & Rogge, R. D. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 482–500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00033.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Bieling, P. J., Hawley, L. L., Bloch, R. T., Corcoran, K. M., Levitan, R. D., Young, L., & ... Segal, Z. V. (2012). Treatment-specific changes in decentering following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus antidepressant medication or placebo for prevention of depressive relapse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(3), 365–372. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027483.

  10. Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 26(5), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., & Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077.

  12. Bloch, L., Haase, C. M., & Levenson, R. W. (2014). Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: more than a wives’ tale. Emotion, 14(1), 130–144. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034272.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Boden, M. T., Irons, J. G., Feldner, M. T., Bujarski, S., & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2015). An investigation of relations among quality of life and individual facets of emotional awareness and mindfulness. Mindfulness, 6(4), 700–707. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0308-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Boorstein, S. (1996). Clinical aspects of meditation. In B. W. Scotton, A. B. Chinen, & J. Battista (Eds.), Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology (pp. 344–354). New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Brown, K., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Brown, K., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/10478400701598298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Brown, K. W., Weinstein, N., & Creswell, J. D. (2012). Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(12), 2037–2041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.04.003.

  18. Burgoon, J. K., Berger, C. R., & Waldron, V. R. (2000). Mindfulness and interpersonal communication. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 105–127. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00154.

  19. Byrne, B. M. (1994). Structural equation modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Cacioppo, J. T., & Patrick, B. (2008). Loneliness: Human nature and the need for social connection. New York: Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Castro-Schilo, L. & Grimm, K. J. (2016). Using residualized change versus difference scores in longitudinal research. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  22. Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: an integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(6), 560–572.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Chartrand, T. L., & Lakin, J. L. (2013). The antecedents and consequences of human behavioral mimicry. Annual Review of Psychology, 64285–64308. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143754.

  24. Coffey, K. A., Hartman, M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: Understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness, 1(4), 235–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-010-0033-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Creswell, J., Irwin, M. R., Burklund, L. J., Lieberman, M. D., Arevalo, J. G., Ma, J., & ... Cole, S. W. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized controlled trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26(7), 1095–1101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.006.

  26. Davis, D. M., & Hayes, J. A. (2011). What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related research. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 198–208. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022062.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0101-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., & Shafran, R. (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 509–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00088-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Feldman, G., Greeson, J., & Senville, J. (2010). Differential effects of mindful breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and loving-kindness meditation on decentering and negative reactions to repetitive thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(10), 1002–1011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.006.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Fredrickson, B. L. (2016). Love: positivity resonance as a fresh, evidence-based perspective on an age-old topic. In L. F. Barrett, M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (4th ed., pp. 847–858). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. In E. Ashby Plant & P. G. Devine (Eds.), Advances on experimental social psychology, 47 (pp. 1–53). Burlington: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930441000238.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1045–1062. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013262.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. R. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365–376. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.365.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Finkel, E. J., Campbell, W., Brunell, A. B., Dalton, A. N., Scarbeck, S. J., & Chartrand, T. L. (2006). High-maintenance interaction: inefficient social coordination impairs self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(3), 456–475. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.3.456.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Frewen, P. A., Evans, E. M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D. A., & Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(6), 758–774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-007-9142-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Friese, M., Messner, C., & Schaffner, Y. (2012). Mindfulness meditation counteracts self-control depletion. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 21(2), 1016–1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2012.01.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Gable, S. L., & Reis, H. T. (2006). Intimacy and the self: an iterative model of the self and close relationships. In P. Noller, J. A. Feeney, P. Noller, & J. A. Feeney (Eds.), Close relationships: functions, forms and processes (pp. 211–225). Hove: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis (UK).

    Google Scholar 

  39. Goldberg, S. B., Wielgosz, J., Dahl, C., Schuyler, B., MacCoon, D. S., Rosenkranz, M., & ... Davidson, R. J. (2015). Does the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire measure what we think it does? Construct validity evidence from an active controlled randomized clinical trial. Psychological Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000233.

  40. Hargie, O. (2010). Skilled interpersonal behavior: research, theory and practice (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Hayes-Skelton, S., & Graham, J. (2013). Decentering as a common link among mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal, and social anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 41(3), 317–328. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465812000902.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Henk, C. M., & Castro-Schilo, L. (2016). Preliminary detection of relations among dynamic processes with two- occasion data. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 23(2), 180–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2015.1030022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169–183.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Hoge, E. A., Bui, E., Goetter, E., Robinaugh, D. J., Ojserkis, R. A., Fresco, D. M., & Simon, N. M. (2015). Change in decentering mediates improvement in anxiety in mindfulness-based stress reduction for generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39(2), 228–235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-014-9646-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Holt-Lunstad, J., & Smith, T. B. (2012). Social relationships and mortality. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 41–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00406.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Hutcherson, C. A., Seppala, E. M., & Gross, J. J. (2008). Loving-kindness meditation increases social connectedness. Emotion, 8(5), 720–724. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013237.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Josefsson, T., Lindwall, M., & Broberg, A. G. (2014). The effects of a short-term mindfulness based intervention on self-reported mindfulness, decentering, executive attention, psychological health, and coping style: examining unique mindfulness effects and mediators. Mindfulness, 5(1), 18–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0142-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1993). Mindfulness meditation: health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice. In D. Goleman & J. Garin (Eds.), Mind/body medicine. Consumer Reports: Yonkers.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163–190. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00845519.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Kaiser, R. H., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., Metcalf, C. A., & Dimidjian, S. (2015). Dwell or decenter? Rumination and decentering predict working memory updating after interpersonal criticism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39(6), 744–753. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-015-9697-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kishton, J. M., & Widaman, K. F. (1994). Unidimensional versus domain representative parceling of questionnaire items: an empirical example. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(3), 757–765. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164494054003022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Kok, B. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Upward spirals of the heart: autonomic flexibility, as indexed by vagal tone, reciprocally and prospectively predicts positive emotions and social connectedness. Biological Psychology, 85(3), 432–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.09.005.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., et al. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24(7), 1123–1132. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612470827.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Kok, B. E., Waugh, C. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Meditation and health: the search for mechanisms of action. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(1), 27–39. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., et al. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1467.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Levenson, R. W., Haase, C. M., Bloch, L., Holley, S. R., & Seider, B. H. (2014). Emotion regulation in couples. In J. J. Gross & J. J. Gross (Eds.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 267–283). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 151–173. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. MacCoon, D. G., Imel, Z. E., Rosenkranz, M. A., Sheftel, J. G., Weng, H. Y., Sullivan, J. C., et al. (2012). The validation of an active control intervention for Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.10.011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Major, B. C., Lundberg, K. L., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2016). Cultivating positivity in social interactions: the effects of positive social engagement on wellbeing. Manuscript under review.

  61. McPherson, M., Brashears, M. E., & Smith-Lovin, L. (2006). Social isolation in America: Changes in core discussion networks over two decades. American Sociological Review, 71(3), 353–375. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100301.

  62. Metcalf, C. A., & Dimidjian, S. (2014). Extensions and mechanisms of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: a review of the evidence. Australian Psychologist, 49(5), 271–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12074.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Miller, J. J., Fletcher, K., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17(3), 192–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-8343(95)00025-M.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Monsen, K., Monsen, J. T., Svartberg, M., & Havik, O. E. (2002). Chronic pain patients: patterns of change in interpersonal problems, pain intensity, and depression-anxiety. Psychotherapy Research, 12(3), 339–354. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptr/12.3.339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638–662. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Quaglia, J. T., Goodman, R. J., & Brown, K. W. (2015). From mindful attention to social connection: the key role of emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion, 29(8), 1466–1474. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.988124.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Rambaran, J. A., Dijkstra, J. K., Munniksma, A., & Cillessen, A. N. (2015). The development of adolescents’ friendships and antipathies: a longitudinal multivariate network test of balance theory. Social Networks, 43162–43176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.05.003.

  68. Reise, S. P., Widaman, K. F., & Pugh, R. H. (1993). Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 552–566. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.552.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Russell, D. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20–40.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science & Medicine, 32(6), 705–714. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(91)90150-B.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Steiger, J. H., & Lind, J. (1980). Statistically-based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the Annual Spring Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City.

  73. Steiger, H., Gauvin, L., Jabalpurwala, S., Se´guin, J. R., & Stotland, S. (1999). Hypersensitivity to social interactions in bulimic syndromes: Relationship to binge eating. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 765–775. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.5.765.

  74. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 615–623. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.615.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Thera, N. (1973). The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.

  76. Traupman, E. K., Smith, T. W., Florsheim, P., Berg, C. A., & Uchino, B. N. (2011). Appraisals of spouse affiliation and control during marital conflict: common and specific cognitive correlates among facets of negative affectivity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(3), 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-010-9339-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Vater, A., & Schröder-Abé, M. (2015). Explaining the link between personality and relationship satisfaction: emotion regulation and interpersonal behaviour in conflict discussions. European Journal of Personality, 29(2), 201–215. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Wachs, K., & Cordova, J. V. (2007). Mindful relating: exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(4), 464–481. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00032.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Wang, Y., Ramsey, R., & de Hamilton, A. F. C. (2011). The control of mimicry by eye contact is mediated by medial prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(33), 12001–12010. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0845-11.2011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Welwood, J. (1996). Reflection and presence: the dialectic of self-knowledge. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 28(2), 107–128.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Widaman, K. F., & Reise, S. P. (1997). Exploring the measurement invariance of psychological instruments: applications in the substance use domain. In K. J. Bryant, M. Windle, & S. G. West (Eds.), The science of prevention: methodological advances from alcohol and substance use research (pp. 281–324). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10222-009.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Williams, M. J., Dalgleish, T., Karl, A., & Kuyken, W. (2014). Examining the factor structures of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Self-Compassion Scale. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 407–418. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035566.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the hardworking members of the research team who contributed to this project: Ann Firestine, Nikki Barczak, Stephanie Tepper, Katie Reiter-Lavery, Cameron Doyle, Lauren Spoeneman, Tammy Dragich, Virginia Davis, Sarah Marshall, and Heather Matia. We would also like to express our sincere appreciation for feedback on this project and manuscript from Dr. Sara Algoe, Dr. Keith Payne, and Dr. Paschal Sheeran.

Funding

This work was supported by a 1440 award from the Mind and Life Institute, awarded to the first author (grant number 2013-1440-Adair).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

KCA developed the hypotheses, designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. BLF co-developed the hypothesized model and study design, consulted on the execution of the study and the analyses, and assisted in writing the paper. LCS provided guidance on analytical methods and consulted on writing the results and discussion sections. SK and SS developed the curriculum and taught the workshops.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kathryn C. Adair.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

This research was approved by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Electronic Supplementary Material

ESM 1

(DOCX 396 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Adair, K.C., Fredrickson, B.L., Castro-Schilo, L. et al. Present with You: Does Cultivated Mindfulness Predict Greater Social Connection Through Gains in Decentering and Reductions in Negative Emotions?. Mindfulness 9, 737–749 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0811-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mindfulness
  • Trait mindfulness
  • Social connection
  • Relationships
  • Decentering
  • Positive emotions
  • Negative emotions
  • Active control