Validation of the French Version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) Among Samples of French and Indigenous Youth

Abstract

Two independent studies were conducted to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the French-Canadian version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure among samples of French and Indigenous youth. In study 1, 589 adolescents (60% girls) aged from 15 to 18 years from two urban high schools, and, in study 2, 311 (51% girls, 43% Indigenous) adolescents aged from 14 to 19 years from two rural high schools completed the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) and other measures to assess its construct validity. An exploratory (study 1) and a confirmatory (study 2) factor analysis validated the single-factor solution. Results also indicate that the French-Canadian version of the CAMM had no floor or ceiling effects, as well as an adequate internal consistency and 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale was supported by positive correlations with measures of self-esteem, resilience, and empowerment, and by negative correlations with psychological symptoms and family violence and difficulties. Child sexual abuse was also related to lower levels of mindfulness. Overall, results suggest that the CAMM may be a useful and appropriate tool to globally assess mindfulness among youth. Data also support the cross-cultural application of this scale among Indigenous adolescents.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ames, C. S., Richardson, J., Payne, S., Smith, P., & Leigh, E. (2014). Innovations in practice: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 19(1), 74–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Atkinson, M. J., & Wade, T. D. (2015). Mindfulness-based prevention for eating disorders: a school-based cluster randomised controlled study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48(7), 1024–1037.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Bagley, C., & Mallick, K. (2001). Normative data and mental health construct validity for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in British Adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 9(2–3), 117–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bagley, C., Bolitho, F., & Bertrand, L. (1997). Norms and construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Canadian high school populations: implications for counselling. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 31(1), 82–92.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bluth, K., & Blanton, P. W. (2014). Mindfulness and self-compassion: exploring pathways to adolescent emotional well-being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 1298–1309.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bluth, K., Campo, R. A., Pluteau-Malinici, S., Reams, A., Mullarkey, M., & Broderick, P. C. (2016a). A school-based mindfulness pilot study for ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. Mindfulness, 7, 90–104.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Bluth, K., Robertson, P. N. E., & Gaylord, S. A. (2016b). A pilot study of a mindfulness intervention for adolescents and the potential role of self-compassion in reducing stress. Explore, 11(4), 292–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bolduc, R., Bigras, N., Godbout, N., Hébert, M., & Daspe, M.-È. (2015). The role of mindfulness and dissociation in the relation between cumulative trauma and depression: a conceptual model. 76th Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

  10. Bopp, M., Bopp, J., & Lane, P. (2003). Aboriginal domestic violence in Canada. Ottawa: The Aboriginal Healing Foundation Research Series.

  11. Brennan, S. (2011). Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian provinces, 2009. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2011001/article/11439-eng.htm.

  12. Briere, J. (1996). Trauma symptom checklist for children (TSCC): professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Resources, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Briere, J. (2012). Working with trauma: mindfulness and compassion. In C. K. Germer & R. D. Siegel (Eds.), Compassion and wisdom in psychotherapy (pp. 265–279). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Briere, J. (2015). Pain and suffering: a synthesis of Buddhist and Western approaches to trauma. In V. Follette, J. Briere, J. Hopper, D. Rozelle, D. Rome, & D. (Eds.), Mindfulness-oriented interventions for trauma: integrating contemplative practices (pp. 11–30). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Brown, K. W., West, A. M., Loverich, T. M., & Biegel, G. M. (2011). Assessing adolescent mindfulness: validation of an adapted mindful attention awareness scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 1023–1033.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. de Bruin, E. I., Zijlstra, B. J. H., van de Weijer-Bergsma, E., & Bögels, S. M. (2011). The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents (MAAS-A): psychometric properties in a Dutch sample. Mindfulness, 2(3), 201–211.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. de Bruin, E. I., Zijlstra, B. J. H., & Bögels, S. M. (2014). The meaning of mindfulness in children and adolescents: further validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) in two independent samples from the Netherlands. Mindfulness, 5, 422–430.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Chiesi, F., Dellagiulia, A., Lionetti, F., Bianchi, G., & Primi, C. (2017). Using item response theory to explore the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM). Mindfulness, 8, 351–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Cunha, M., & Paiva, M. J. (2012). Text anxiety in adolescents: the role of self-criticism and acceptance and mindfulness skills. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15(2), 533–543.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Cunha, M., Galhardo, A., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2013). Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM): Estudo das características psicométricas da vers o portuguesa. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 26, 459–468.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Daigneault, I., Cyr, M., & Tourigny, M. (1998). French translation of the “Consumer Constructed Scale to Measure Empowerment”. Montreal: Departement of psychology, Université de Montréal.

  23. Daigneault, I., Dion, J., Hébert, M., McDuff, P., & Collin-Vézina, D. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) among samples of French Canadian youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(2–3), 160–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Daigneault, I., Dion, J., Hébert, M., & Bourgeois, C. (2016). Mindfulness as mediator and moderator of post-traumatic symptomatology in adolescence following childhood sexual abuse or assault. Mindfulness, 7(6), 1306–1315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. DeVon, H. A., Block, M. E., Moyle-Wright, P., Ernst, D. M., Hayden, S. J., Lazzara, D. J., et al. (2007). A psychometric toolbox for testing validity and reliability. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 39(2), 155–164.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Follette, V. M., Palm, K. M., & Rasmussen Hall, M. L. (2004). Acceptance, mindfulness, and trauma. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: expanding the cognitive behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Follette, V. M., Briere, J., Rozelle, D., Hopper, J. W., & Rome, D. I. (2015). Mindfulness-oriented interventions for trauma: integrating contemplative practices. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Godbout, N., Bigras, N., & Dion, J. (2016). Présence attentive et traumas interpersonnels subis durant l’enfance. In S. Grégoire, L. Lachance, & L. Richer (Eds.), La présence attentive (mindfulness) : état des connaissances théoriques, empiriques et pratiques (pp. 229–246). Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec (PUQ).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  29. Greco, L. A., Baer, R. A., & Smith, G. T. (2011). Assessing mindfulness in children and adolescents: development and validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM). Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 606–614.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23, 1034–1040.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Johnson, C., Burke, C., Brinkman, S., & Wade, T. (2016). Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 81, 1–11.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Johnson, C., Burke, C., Brinkman, S., & Wade, T. (2017). Development and validation of a multifactor mindfulness scale in youth: the Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences-Adolescents (CHIME-A). Psychological Assessment, 29(3), 264–281.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Jouvin, E., Cyr, M., Thériault, C., & Wright, J. (2001). Étude des qualités psychométriques de la traduction française du Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Document inédit: Université de Montréal.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kuby, A. K., McLean, N., & Allen, K. (2015). Validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) with non-clinical adolescents. Mindfulness, 6(6), 1448–1455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. LaFromboise, T. D., Hoyt, D. R., Oliver, L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (2006). Family, community, and school influences on resilience among American Indian adolescents in the upper Midwest. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 193–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Lagor, A. F., Williams, D. J., Lerner, J. B., & McClure, K. S. (2013). Lessons learned from a mindfulness-based intervention with chronically ill youth. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 1(2), 146–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Ministère de l’éducation, du loisir et du sport (MELS). (2011). Indices de défavorisation 2010–2011. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec Retrieved from http://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/site_web/documents/PSG/statistiques_info_decisionnelle/IndicesDefavorisation2010-2011.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Pallozzi, R., Wertheim, E., Paxton, S., & Ong, B. (2017). Trait mindfulness measure for use with adolescents: a systematic review. Mindfulness, 8(1), 110–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Pepping, C. A., Duvenage, M., Cronin, T. J., & Lyons, A. (2016). Adolescent mindfulness and psychopathology: the role of emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 302–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Robinson, J. M., Ladd, B. O., & Anderson, K. G. (2014). When you see it, let it be: urgency, mindfulness and adolescent substance use. Addictive Behaviors, 39, 1038–1041.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Rogers, E. S., Chamberlin, J., Ellison, M. L., & Crean, T. (1997). A consumer-constructed scale to measure empowerment among users of mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 48(8), 1042–1047.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  44. Sciarappa, K., Rogers, S. E., & Chamberlin, J. (1994). A consumer constructed empowerment scale. Boston: Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation: Boston University.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Statistics Canada. (2015). Aboriginal statistics at a glance (2nd ed.). Ottawa: Statistics Canada Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-645-x/2015001/victimization-victimisation-eng.htm.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Tan, L. B. (2016). A critical review of adolescent mindfulness-based programmes. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21(2), 193–207.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Tan, L. B., & Martin, G. (2015). Taming the adolescent mind: a randomized controlled trial examining clinical efficacy of an adolescent mindfulness-based group program. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 20(1), 49–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Tan, L. B., & Martin, G. (2016). Mind full or mindful: a report on mindfulness and psychological health in healthy adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(1), 64–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Terwee, C. B., Bot, S. D., de Boer, M. R., van der Windt, D. A., Knol, D. L., et al. (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60(1), 34–42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Thériault, C., Cyr, M., & Wright, J. (2003). Facteurs contextuels associés aux symptômes d’adolescentes victimes d’agression sexuelle intrafamiliale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(11), 1291–1309.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Thompson, R. W., Arnkoff, D. B., & Glass, C. R. (2011). Conceptualizing mindfulness and acceptance as components of psychological resilience to trauma. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 12, 220–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Ungar, M., Liebenberg, L., Boothroyd, R., Kwong, W. M., Lee, T. Y., Leblanc, J., et al. (2008). The study of youth resilience across cultures: lessons from a pilot study of measurement development. Research in Human Development, 5(3), 166–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Vallerand, R. J. (1989). Vers une méthodologie de validation transculturelle de questionnaires psychologiques: implications pour la recherche en langue française. Psychologie Canadienne, 30(4), 662–689.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Vallières, E. F., & Vallerand, R. J. (1990). Traduction et validation canadienne-française de l'Échelle de l'Estime de Soi de Rosenberg. International Journal of Psychology, 25(3), 305–316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Van der Gucht, K., Takano, K., Van Broeck, N., & Raes, F. (2015). A mindfulness-based intervention for economically disadvantaged people: effects on symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression and on cognitive reactivity and overgeneralization. Mindfulness, 6(5), 1042–1052.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Viñas, F., Malo, S., González, M., Navarro, D., & Casas, F. (2015). Assessing mindfulness on a sample of Catalan-speaking Spanish adolescents: validation of the Catalan version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18(46), 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Wright, J., & Sabourin, S. (1996). French translation of the “Trauma symptom checklist for children”. Montreal: Department of psychology, Université de Montréal.

  58. Yurek, L. A., Vasey, J., & Havens, D. S. (2008). The use of subject-generated identification codes in longitudinal research. Evaluation Review, 32(5), 435–452.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Zahradnik, M., Stewart, S. H., O’Conner, R. M., Stevens, D., Ungar, M., & Wekerle, C. (2010). Resilience moderates the relationship between exposure to violence and posttraumatic reexperiencing in Mi’kmaq young. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(2), 408–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Zenner, C., Herrnleben-Kurz, S., & Walach, H. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in schools—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 603.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. Zoogman, S., Goldberg, S. B., Hoyt, W. T., & Miller, L. (2015). Mindfulness interventions with youth: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 6(2), 290–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

These studies were supported by a grant from the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi to the first author and by a grant from Quebec’s Social Services and Health Ministry to the third author.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Jacinthe Dion: designed and executed the study 2, assisted with the EFA and CFA, conducted the other data analyses, and wrote the paper. Linda Paquette: conducted the EFA, assisted with the other data analyses and writing of the study. Isabelle Daigneault: designed and executed the study 1 and collaborated with the writing of the study. Natacha Godbout: assisted with the data analyses and collaborated in the writing and editing of the manuscript. Martine Hébert: assisted with the data analyses and collaborated with the writing and editing the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jacinthe Dion.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in these studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the two institutional research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the studies.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dion, J., Paquette, L., Daigneault, I. et al. Validation of the French Version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) Among Samples of French and Indigenous Youth. Mindfulness 9, 645–653 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0807-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure
  • Mindfulness
  • Self-acceptance
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Assessment
  • Adolescents
  • Psychological symptoms
  • Self-esteem
  • Resilience
  • Empowerment
  • Child abuse