, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 645–653 | Cite as

Validation of the French Version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) Among Samples of French and Indigenous Youth

  • Jacinthe Dion
  • Linda Paquette
  • Isabelle Daigneault
  • Natacha Godbout
  • Martine Hébert


Two independent studies were conducted to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the French-Canadian version of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure among samples of French and Indigenous youth. In study 1, 589 adolescents (60% girls) aged from 15 to 18 years from two urban high schools, and, in study 2, 311 (51% girls, 43% Indigenous) adolescents aged from 14 to 19 years from two rural high schools completed the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) and other measures to assess its construct validity. An exploratory (study 1) and a confirmatory (study 2) factor analysis validated the single-factor solution. Results also indicate that the French-Canadian version of the CAMM had no floor or ceiling effects, as well as an adequate internal consistency and 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale was supported by positive correlations with measures of self-esteem, resilience, and empowerment, and by negative correlations with psychological symptoms and family violence and difficulties. Child sexual abuse was also related to lower levels of mindfulness. Overall, results suggest that the CAMM may be a useful and appropriate tool to globally assess mindfulness among youth. Data also support the cross-cultural application of this scale among Indigenous adolescents.


Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure Mindfulness Self-acceptance Reliability Validity Assessment Adolescents Psychological symptoms Self-esteem Resilience Empowerment Child abuse 


Author Contributions

Jacinthe Dion: designed and executed the study 2, assisted with the EFA and CFA, conducted the other data analyses, and wrote the paper. Linda Paquette: conducted the EFA, assisted with the other data analyses and writing of the study. Isabelle Daigneault: designed and executed the study 1 and collaborated with the writing of the study. Natacha Godbout: assisted with the data analyses and collaborated in the writing and editing of the manuscript. Martine Hébert: assisted with the data analyses and collaborated with the writing and editing the manuscript.

Funding Information

These studies were supported by a grant from the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi to the first author and by a grant from Quebec’s Social Services and Health Ministry to the third author.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in these studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the two institutional research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the studies.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health SciencesUniversité du Québec à ChicoutimiChicoutimiCanada
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Research Center on Intimate Relationship Problems and Sexual Abuse (CRIPCAS)MontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of SexologyUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada

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