The Differential Moderating Roles of Self-Compassion and Mindfulness in Self-Stigma and Well-Being Among People Living with Mental Illness or HIV
- 498 Downloads
In addition to endorsing the content of stigmatizing thoughts (self-stigma “content”), how frequently and automatically individuals think about these thoughts (self-stigma “process”) also have implications for their well-being. The present study examined the roles of self-compassion and mindfulness in moderating the relationships of self-stigma content and process with subjective well-being of people in recovery of mental illness (PMI) and people living with HIV (PLHIV). Participants included 169 PMI and 291 PLHIV in Hong Kong who reported their levels of self-compassion, mindfulness, self-stigma content and process, and life satisfaction. Path analyses indicated that the proposed model fitted the two samples well, χ 2(10) = 19, p = .04, CFI = .98, NNFI = .93, and RMSEA = .04. In both groups, self-compassion and mindfulness were significantly associated with life satisfaction. Self-compassion moderated the relationship between self-stigma content and life satisfaction among PLHIV, while mindfulness moderated the relationship between self-stigma process and life satisfaction among PMI. The differential moderating roles of self-compassion and mindfulness in buffering the effects of self-stigma content and process among PMI and PLHIV were identified, and implications for stigma reduction and well-being promotion in different stigmatized groups were discussed.
KeywordsSelf-compassion Mindfulness Self-stigma Mental habit Life satisfaction People with mental illness People living with HIV
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was funded by the University Direct Grant of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (Ref No. 2021054 and 2021091) and the Social Welfare Development Fund (Ref. No R03).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Chan, K. S. K., & Mak, W. W. S. (2016). The content and process of self-stigma in people with mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.Google Scholar
- Equal Opportunities Commission (2016). Study on Legislation against Discrimination on the Grounds of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status. Report commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Commission and conducted by Gender Research Centre of the Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.eoc.org.hk/eoc/upload/ResearchReport/20161251750293418312.pdf.
- Germer, C. K. (2009). The mindful path to self-compassion: freeing yourself from destructive thoughts and emotions. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: an experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Mak, W. W. S., Mo, P. K. H., Cheung, R. Y. W., Woo, J., Cheung, F. M., & Lee, D. (2006). Comparative stigma of HIV/AIDS, SARS, and tuberculosis in Hong Kong. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 1912–1922. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.016.
- Mak, W. W. S., Cheung, R. Y. M., Law, R. W., Woo, J., Li, P. C. K., & Chung, R. W. Y. (2007a). Examining attribution model of self-stigma on social support and psychological well-being among people with HIV+/AIDS. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 1549–1559. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mak, W. W. S., Chan, R. C. H., Wong, S. Y. S., Lau, J. T. F., Tang, W. K., Tang, A. K. L., et al. (2016). A cross-diagnostic investigation of the differential impact of discrimination on clinical and personal recovery. Psychiatric Services.Google Scholar
- Neff, K. D., & Dahm, K. A. (2014). Self-compassion: what it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. In M. Robinson, B. Meier, & B. Ostafin (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 121–137). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Quinn, D. M., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2009). Living with a concealable stigmatized identity: the impact of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, and cultural stigma on psychological distress and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 634–651. doi: 10.1037/a0015815.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.68.4.615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Virtual AIDS Office of Hong Kong (2015, August 8). Retrieved from http://www.info.gov.hk/aids/english/surveillance/latest_stat.htm.