, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 361–371 | Cite as

Pilot Study of a Mindfulness-Based Group Intervention for Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease and Their Caregivers

  • Therese Verkerke CashEmail author
  • Vanessa Sepopo Ekouevi
  • Christopher Kilbourn
  • Sarah K. Lageman


This pilot study assessed the feasibility and impact of an 8-week mindfulness-based group intervention on cognitive and emotional functioning for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and their caregivers. Twenty-five percent of those initially recruited dropped out before completing the study. The final sample (N = 39; 29 patients/10 caregivers) was 53.8 % male, 89.7 % Caucasian, with a mean level of education of 16.77 years (SD = 2.51), and ranged in age from 50 to 82 (M = 65.64, SD = 7.62). Mindfulness levels significantly increased for all participants from pre- to immediate-post. A significant improvement was seen for self-reported symptoms of depression and self-reported language functioning. Patient participants uniquely showed significant improvement on mental flexibility and complex attention tasks and reported significantly fewer emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with PD. Participant compliance with assigned home mindfulness practice was measured with homework tracking logs, and participants reported an average of 20 min/day, 6 days/week. Participants attended an average of six classes. Homework compliance significantly correlated with improvement in mindfulness levels, apathy and anxiety symptoms, and on working memory and mental flexibility tasks. Better class attendance was also associated with increased mindfulness and reduced apathy symptoms. Increased mindfulness was related to fewer symptoms of apathy and anxiety and better PD-related quality of life. These results show promise for the use of mindfulness-based interventions to improve emotional and cognitive functioning in individuals with PD and their caregivers and suggest that efforts to increase participant retention and encourage homework compliance and class attendance are important for optimizing outcomes in future trials.


Parkinson’s disease Caregivers Mindfulness-based intervention Compliance Feasibility 



The authors wish to acknowledge the support provided to Virginia Commonwealth University’s Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders Center through the Medical College of Virginia Foundation, which enabled completion of this study. Study data were collected and managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools hosted at Virginia Commonwealth University through award number UL1TR000058 from the National Center for Research Resources. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent official views of the National Center for Research Resources or the National Institutes of Health.

The authors also wish to acknowledge undergraduate student research assistants, Margaret Corum and Joanna Nelson, who provided essential support in the collection and scoring of neuropsychological outcomes for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics Approval

This study was approved by the appropriate ethics committee and was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Consent to Participate

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Therese Verkerke Cash
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vanessa Sepopo Ekouevi
    • 1
  • Christopher Kilbourn
    • 2
  • Sarah K. Lageman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders CenterVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders CenterVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurology and Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders CenterVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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