Advertisement

Mindfulness

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 1411–1421 | Cite as

Meditation Practice and Self-Reported Mindfulness: a Cross-Sectional Investigation of Meditators and Non-Meditators Using the Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences (CHIME)

  • Claudia Bergomi
  • Wolfgang Tschacher
  • Zeno Kupper
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Mindfulness meditation is generally recognized as the fundamental practice for the development of mindfulness. Accordingly, regular meditation practice is thought to lead to a better capacity to maintain mindfulness during everyday life. Most available studies did not measure the individual amount of experience with meditation practice in detail. In the present study, 683 participants from the general population completed a meditation experience questionnaire and the Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences (CHIME), a scale providing a broad multi-dimensional coverage of mindfulness. Of these, 183 reported currently practicing meditation on a regular basis and provided information about time elapsed since initiation of meditation practice, the amount of current practice, and the techniques used. Results provide evidence for the associations between self-reported mindfulness and meditation practice and suggest that mindfulness is particularly associated with continued practice in the present, rather than with accumulated practice over years. Moreover, no differences in the levels of mindfulness between subgroups practicing with different techniques (Zen, Vipassana, and body movement-oriented techniques) could be established, when differences in age and meditation practice were taken into account.

Keywords

Mindfulness Meditation Meditation practice Meditation technique Zen Vipassana Body movement Self-report assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the teachers of the Swiss MBSR Union for their valuable support of the study.

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare no financial interests or benefit in the context of this study.

References

  1. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report the Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment, 11, 191–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2007). Construct validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., Walsh, E., Duggan, D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, R. A., Walsh, E., & Lykins, E. L. (2009). Assessment of mindfulness. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness (pp. 153–168). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belzer, F., Schmidt, S., Lucius-Hoene, G., Schneider, J. F., Orellana-Rios, C. L., & Sauer, S. (2013). Challenging the construct validity of mindfulness assessment—a cognitive interview study of the Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Mindfulness, 4, 33–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2013). Measuring mindfulness: first steps towards the development of a comprehensive mindfulness scale. Mindfulness, 4, 18–32.Google Scholar
  8. Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2014). Konstruktion und erste Validierung eines Fragebogens zur umfassenden Erfassung von Achtsamkeit: Das Comprehensive Inventory of Mindfulness Experiences. Diagnostica, 60, 111–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z. V., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promises in defining and measuring mindfulness: observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 242–248.Google Scholar
  12. Burg, J. M., & Michalak, J. (2011). The healthy quality of mindful breathing: associations with rumination and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cahn, B. R., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Caldwell, K., Harrison, M., Adams, M., Quin, R. H., & Greeson, J. (2010). Developing mindfulness in college students through movement-based courses: effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality. Journal of American College Health, 58, 433–442.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 23–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chadwick, P., Hember, M., Symes, J., Peters, E., Kuipers, E., & Dagnan, D. (2008). Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 451–455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiesa, A. (2013). The difficulty of defining mindfulness: current thought and critical issues. Mindfulness, 4, 255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christopher, M. S., Christopher, V., & Charoensuk, S. (2009). Assessing “Western” mindfulness among Thai Theravāda Buddhist Monks. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 12, 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Christopher, M. S., Woodrich, L. E., & Tiernan, K. A. (2014). Using cognitive interviews to assess the cultural validity of state and trait measures of mindfulness among Zen Buddhists. Mindfulness, 5, 145–160.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Creswell, J. D., Way, B. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 560–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Falkenström, F. (2010). Studying mindfulness in experienced meditators: a quasi-experimental approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 305–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38, 234–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Frewen, P. A., Evans, E. M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D. J. A., & Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: mindfulness and negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 758–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frewen, P. A., Dozois, D. J. A., Neufeld, R. W. J., Lane, R. D., Densmore, M., Stevens, T. K., et al. (2010). Individual differencesin trait mindfulness predict dorsomedial prefrontal and amygdalaresponse during emotional imagery: an fMRI study. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 479–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grossman, P. (2008). On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 405–408.Google Scholar
  26. Grossman, P. (2010). Mindfulness for psychologists: paying kind attention to the perceptible. Mindfulness, 1, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grossman, P. (2011). Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: Comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment, 23, 1034–1040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  29. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.Google Scholar
  30. Lau, M., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Shapiro, S., Carmody, J., Abbey, S., & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 1445–1467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Nyklíček, I. & van Son, J. (2013). An Observational Measure of Mindful Awareness: Validation of the Assessment of Momentary Mindful Awareness (AMMA). Paper presented at the First International Conference on Mindfulness, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  32. Rosch, E. (2007). More than mindfulness: when you have a tiger by the tail, let it eat you. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 258–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schure, M. B., Christopher, J., & Christopher, S. (2008). Mind–body medicine and the art of self‐care: teaching mindfulness to counseling students through yoga, meditation, and qigong. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Shelov, D. V., Suchday, S., & Friedberg, J. P. (2009). A pilot study measuring the impact of yoga on the trait of mindfulness. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37, 595–598.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Soler, J., Cebolla, A., Feliu-Soler, A., Demarzo, M. M., Pascual, J. C., Baños, R., & García-Campayo, J. (2014). Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index. PloS One, 9, e86622.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sugiura, Y., Sato, A., Ito, Y., & Murakami, H. (2012). Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Mindfulness, 3, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. (2010). Mindfulness and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder avoidance symptom severity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 409–415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Dam, N., Earleywine, M., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2009). Differential item function across meditators and non-meditators on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 516–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walach, H., Buchheld, N., Buttenmüller, V., Kleinknecht, N., & Schmidt, S. (2006). Measuring mindfulness—The Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1543–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Bergomi
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Tschacher
    • 1
  • Zeno Kupper
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychotherapy, University Hospital of PsychiatryUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations