Components of Sleep Quality as Mediators of the Relation Between Mindfulness and Subjective Vitality Among Older Adults
- 810 Downloads
We examined the potential contribution of sleep quality to the relation between mindfulness and subjective vitality, a marker of physical and psychological energy. Seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were investigated as potential mediators of the association between dispositional mindfulness and subjective vitality in our sample of 219 older adults. Mindfulness, sleep quality, and subjective vitality were significantly and positively associated with each other. Sleep quality partially mediated the relation between mindfulness and subjective vitality, with two components responsible for this effect: habitual sleep efficiency and sleep-related problems experienced during the daytime. Implications of the association between mindfulness and subjective vitality in older adults via sleep quality are addressed, including the potential for interventions to improve sleep quality and well-being among older adults by inclusion of mindfulness training.
KeywordsMindfulness Sleep quality Subjective vitality Older adults Primary care
This work was supported by the National Institute on Aging R21 AG023956 and R24 AG031089 to J.A.M.
- American Psychological Association, Science Directorate. (1993). Vitality for life: psychological research for productive aging. Washington, DC: APA Press.Google Scholar
- Biegel, G. M., Brown, K. W., Shapiro, S. L., & Schubert, C. M. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 855–866. doi: 10.1037/a0016241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bowden, D., Gaudry, C., An, S. C. & Gruzelier, J. (2012). A comparative randomized controlled trial of the effects of brain wave vibration training, Iyengar yoga, and mindfulness on mood, well-being, and salivary cortisol. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 234713, 13 pages. doi: 10.1155/2012/234713
- Creswell, J. D., Irwin, M. R., Burklund, L. J., Lieberman, M. D., Arevalo, J. M. G., Ma, J., et al. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training reduces loneliness and pro-inflammatory gene expression in older adults: a small randomized trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26, 1095–1101. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.07.006.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Doi, Y., Minowa, M., Uchiyama, M., Okawa, M., Kim, K., Shibui, K., et al. (2000). Psychometric assessment of subjective sleep quality using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) in psychiatric disordered and control subjects. Psychiatry Research, 97(2–3), 165–172. doi: 10.1016/S0165-1781(00)00232-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fredrickson, B. L., Grewen, K. M., Coffey, K. A., Algoe, S. B., Firestine, A. M., Arevalo, J. M. G. et al. (2013). A functional genomic perspective on human well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved August 2, 2013 from http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/07/25/1305419110.abstract
- Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(1), 1–65. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01034.x.Google Scholar
- Hoch, C. C., Reynolds, C. F., 3rd, Buysse, D. J., Monk, T. H., Nowell, P., Begley, A. E., et al. (2001). Protecting sleep quality in later life: a pilot study of bed restriction and sleep hygiene. Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(1), 52–59. doi: 10.1093/geronb/56.1.P52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. M., Bell, I., et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 11–21. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm3301_2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Morone, N. E., Lynch, C. S., Greco, C. M., Tindle, H., & Weiner, D. K. (2008). I felt like a new person. The effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults with chronic pain: qualitative narrative analysis of diary entries. The Journal of Pain, 9(9), 841–848. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2008.04.003.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moynihan, J. A., Chapman, B. P., Klorman, R., Krasner, M. S., Duberstein, P. R., Brown, K. W., et al. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for older adults: effects on executive function, frontal alpha asymmetry and immune function. Neuropsychobiology, 68(1), 1–17. doi: 10.1159/000350949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Newman, A. B., Enright, P. L., Manolio, T. A., Haponik, E. F., & Wahl, P. W. (1997). Sleep disturbance, psychosocial correlates, and cardiovascular disease in 5201 older adults: the cardiovascular health study. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45(1), 1–7. PMid:8994480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Rusting, C. (1999). Gender differences in well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: the foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 330–350). New York, NY, US: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, S. L., & Schwartz, G. E. (2000). The role of intention in self-regulation: toward intentional systemic mindfulness. In M. Boekaerts, M. Zeidner, & P.R. Pintrich (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, pp. 253-273. Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50037-8.
- Vinkers, D. J., Gussekloo, J., Stek, M. L., Westendorp, R. G., & van der Mast, R. C. (2004). Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective population based study. British Medical Journal, 329(7471), 881–884. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38216.604664.DE.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vlachopoulos, S. P., & Karavani, E. (2009). Psychological needs and subjective vitality in exercise: cross-gender situational test of the needs universality hypothesis. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 6, 207–222.Google Scholar