Advertisement

Mindfulness

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 601–609 | Cite as

Mindfulness and Group Performance: An Exploratory Investigation into the Effects of Brief Mindfulness Intervention on Group Task Performance

  • Daire O. CleirighEmail author
  • John Greaney
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

With much investigation done on the effects of mindfulness in the area of health and well-being, research in other areas remains lacking. This current study aimed to address this gap in the research by examining the effects of mindfulness training on task performance, further highlighting a possible association between increased group performance as a result of mindfulness training and increased group cohesion. This current study also aimed to add qualitatively to the research by examining Irish attitudes towards the concept of mindfulness. Participants took part in a 10-min mindfulness intervention (or 10-min control intervention), after which they completed a 40-min group decision-making task. Results suggest that mindfulness does have a positive effect on group performance with participants in the mindfulness condition scoring significantly higher on the group task. Results also supported a possible association between group performance and group cohesion. In investigating Irish attitudes, findings revealed a high level of openness, with self-reported open-mindedness and perceived importance accounting for these attitudes. Findings also revealed a high level of pre-existing knowledge of the concept of mindfulness. These findings may serve as a catalyst for further investigation, with future research continuing the investigation on a larger scale, incorporating larger sample sizes, more exact measures, and also extending its ecological validity within more diverse populations.

Keywords

Attitudes Decision-making Group cohesion Group performance Mindfulness 

References

  1. Alberts, H. J., & Thewissen, R. (2011). The effect of a brief mindfulness intervention on memory for positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Mindfulness, 2(2), 73–77.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amarach. (2011). Attitudes towards the Catholic Church: an Amarch report for the Iona Institute. http://ionainstitute.ie/assets/files/Attitudes%20to%20Church%20poll.pdf.
  3. Anderson, N. D., Lau, M. A., Segal, Z. V., & Bishop, S. R. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14(6), 449–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12), 1849–1858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125–143.Google Scholar
  6. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beal, D. J., Cohen, R. R., Burke, M. J., & McLendon, C. L. (2003). Cohesion and performance in groups: a meta-analytic clarification of construct relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(6), 989.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beddoe, A. E., & Murphy, S. O. (2004). Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing students? The Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 305–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Biegel, G. M., Brown, K. W., Shapiro, S. L., & Schubert, C. M. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 855.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241.Google Scholar
  11. Bogels, S. M., Sijbers, G. F. V. M., & Voncken, M. (2006). Mindfulness and task concentration training for social phobia: a pilot study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20(1), 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Breen, M. J., McGee, H., O'Boyle, C., Goode, H., & Devereux, E. (2009). “Suing the Pope” and scandalising the people: Irish attitudes to sexual abuse by clergy pre-and post-screening of a Critical documentary. Irish Communications Review 11Google Scholar
  13. Chin, W. W., Salisbury, D. W. M., Pearson, A. W., & Stollak, M. J. (1999). Perceived cohesion in small groups adapting and testing the Perceived Cohesion Scale in a small-group setting. Small Group Research, 30(6), 751–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Colbeck, C. L., Campbell, S. E., & Bjorklund, S. A. (2000). Grouping in the dark: what college students learn from group projects. Journal of Higher Education, 60–83.Google Scholar
  16. Dane, E. (2011). Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management, 37(4), 997–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dyer, C. (2006). Research in psychology: a practical guide to methods and statistics (2nd ed.). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Erisman, S. M., & Roemer, L. (2010). A preliminary investigation of the effects of experimentally induced mindfulness on emotional responding to film clips. Emotion, 10(1), 72.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Festinger, L., Schachter, S., & Back, K. (1950). Social pressure in informal groups. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  20. Fjorback, L. O., & Walach, H. (2012). Meditation based therapies—a systematic review and some critical observations. Religions, 3(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gully, S. M., Devine, D. J., & Whitney, D. J. (1995). A meta-analysis of cohesion and performance effects of level of analysis and task interdependence. Small Group Research, 26(4), 497–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haslam, S. A., McGarty, C., Brown, P. M., Eggins, R. A., Morrison, B. E., & Reynolds, K. J. (1998). Inspecting the emperor’s clothes: evidence that random selection of leaders can enhance group performance. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2(3), 168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J., & Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2000). Joining together: group theory and group skills (7th ed.). Boston, USA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  25. Kabat, & Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: how to cope with stress, pain and illness using mindfulness meditation (15th anniversary ed). London: Piaktus.Google Scholar
  26. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Commentaries: mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144–155.Google Scholar
  28. Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: a resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Shao, R., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2009). The role of mindfulness in predicting individual performance. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 41(4), 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sundstrom, E., Busby, P. L., & Bobrow, W. S. (1997). Group process and performance: interpersonal behaviors and decision quality in group problem solving by consensus. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(3), 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Valentine, E. R., & Sweet, P. L. (1999). Meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2(1), 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wenk-Sormaz, H. (2005). Meditation can reduce habitual responding. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 11(2), 42–58.Google Scholar
  36. Williams, J. M. G. (2010). Mindfulness and psychological process. Emotion, 10(1), 1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19(2), 597–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT)DublinIreland

Personalised recommendations