, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 589–597 | Cite as

Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Feasibility of the Soles of the Feet Mindfulness-Based Intervention with Elementary School Students

  • Joshua C. FelverEmail author
  • Jennifer L. Frank
  • Amber D. McEachern


Children with high rates of disruptive behavior in elementary school are at risk for future psychosocial difficulties. Professionals who work in today's schools are in need of effective interventions to reduce rates of disruptive behaviors in schools in order to ensure optimal outcomes for students. We detail a pilot study of a brief mindfulness-based intervention, Soles of the Feet (SOF), for elementary school students. Three non-disabled students with high rates of off-task behavior during general education periods were selected and taught the SOF intervention. SOF took place over the course of five 20–30-min sessions in a public school setting. Using a multiple-baseline single-subject study design, results obtained via direct observation of student behavior during general education instructional time in the classroom suggest that SOF may be an effective intervention to reduce off-task behavior and increase academically engaged behavior for behaviorally challenging students. Questionnaires administered to these students and their teachers suggest that SOF is socially valid, feasible, and acceptable intervention for use in public schools. Conclusions extend the research of the effectiveness of SOF, and suggest that SOF is an effective short-term, resource non-intensive, and socially valid intervention for use with typically developing students with disruptive behavior in a public school setting.


Mindfulness Children Schools Teachers Students 



This work was supported by the National Institutes of Mental Health grant #T32MH20012 to Elizabeth Stormshak, PhD.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua C. Felver
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jennifer L. Frank
    • 3
  • Amber D. McEachern
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Special Education and Clinical SciencesUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  3. 3.Prevention Research CenterPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  4. 4.Mid America HealthGreenwoodUSA

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