Changes in Ruminative Thinking Mediate the Clinical Benefits of Mindfulness: Preliminary Findings
We investigated whether the clinical benefits of mindfulness training are mediated by a reduction in maladaptive rumination and an increase in adaptive rumination. Participants in eight-session mindfulness training were assessed before and after treatment, while waiting-list controls were assessed at similar times. For the mindfulness training, a treatment manual was derived from the mindfulness-based cognitive therapy procedure and adapted to account for the consequences of stress, anxiety, and depression rather than just depression. Replicating previous findings, results indicate that mindfulness training, as compared to the waiting-list condition, reduces general psychopathology. It was also found that mindfulness training reduces maladaptive rumination and increases adaptive rumination. Mediational analyses further suggest that clinical benefits of mindfulness required changes in ruminative mode of processing. Results are discussed in terms of Teasdale et al.’s assumption that mindfulness training is effective because it reduces maladaptive rumination.
KeywordsMindfulness Meditation Modes of processing Rumination Psychological change processes
This work was supported by a grant from the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research, awarded to first author (1.1.315.09.F) and by a Joined Research Grant (ARC 06/11-337) from the Belgian French Community, awarded to second author. Data collection has been made possible by the UCL Psychology Department Consulting Center (CPS). The authors also appreciated the helpful comments of Nathalie Vrielynck, Betty Chang, and Ronald Rapee on earlier drafts of this paper.
- Aldao, A., & Nolem-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy (in press).Google Scholar
- Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.Google Scholar
- Barnard, P., Watkins, E., Mackintosh, B. & Nimmo-Smith, I. (2007). Getting stuck in a mental rut: Some process and experiential attributes. Paper presented at the 35th congress of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, Brighton, England.Google Scholar
- Bishop, R. S., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.Google Scholar
- Blunch, N. (2008). Introduction to structural equation modeling using SPSS and AMOS. London: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
- Derogatis, L. R. (1977). SCL-90-R. Administration, scoring and procedures. Manual for the revised version and other instruments of the psychopathology rating series. Baltimore: School of Medicine, John Hopkins University.Google Scholar
- Dudley, R. Kuyken, W., & Padesky, C. A. (2010). Disorder specific and transdiagnostic case conceptualization. Clinical Psychology Review (in press).Google Scholar
- Philippot, P., Neumann, A., & Vrielynck, N. (2007). Emotion information processing and affect regulation: Specificity matters! In M. Vandekerkhove et al. (Eds.), Regulating emotions: Social necessity and biological inheritance (pp. 189–209). London/New York: Blackwell Publisher.Google Scholar
- Philippot, P., Watkins, E., Barnard, P., Raes, F., & Hermans, D. (2009). A short French version of the Cambridge Exeter Ruminative Thinking Scale. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
- Segal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, J. M. G. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 139, 267–274.Google Scholar
- Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar